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orion-list peacemakers, etc.

Dear George X. Brooks,

	To the best of my knowledge, no extant ancient text, in any
language, ever, called Essenes "doers of war." Therefore I invite you to
reconsider your use of this term. (Hippolytus evidently partly mixed up
Essenes and the "fourth philosophy.") Marcus Agrippa, a general, did not
convey a warlike description of Essenes to Pliny. Josephus (War 2.135 [6])
did describe Essenes as "peacemakers."

	The Qumran coin hoard, placed probably in late first century BCE,
is not necessarily one of the Copper Scroll items, and it is not
necessarily typical of the scroll nor Essenes. If I recall correctly,
Robert D. Leonard Jr. allowed that the Qumran hoard might be Essene but
also wrote that the religious affiliations of all other hoards he studied
cannot be known. One can at least ask the question; and remind that the
Copper Scroll total amount is still under discussion. But more relevant
here is the point that, if the hoards other than Qumran are not identified
by religious affiliation, how then can they be used to contrast in size
with the Qumran hoard? In other words, for example, might the 'Isfiye hoard
be Essene?

	In his early work, written probably in late first century BCE or
early first CE, "Every Good Man is Free," Philo located Essenes in
Palestine Syria and commented on their relations with various rulers over
*that* country. Who are the rulers referred to? One possibility: Hasmoneans.


Stephen Goranson

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