The recent publication of two volumes of the "Discoveries in the Judaean Desert" series devoted exclusively to sapiential texts, DJD XX and XXXIV, provides the impetus for a reassessment and reevaluation of this group of compositions within Judaism and early Christianity. Prior to the discovery of the Scrolls, our knowledge of wisdom literature in the Second Temple period was limited to contemporary biblical books, apocryphal works, and pseudepigraphical writings. Recently published compositions, especially 4QInstruction (olim Sapiential Work) and Mysteries, now allow for a more refined and nuanced picture of wisdom literature, and its impact on and interaction with other genres. In addition to shedding light on the world of their authors, these texts also provide a missing link between earlier and later sapiential compositions. Analysis of these newly published works also demonstrates how the authors reacted to and reused biblical wisdom in their new literary creations.