Berlin notes
Berlin, Notes

1 For 4Q179 see J. Allegro, DJD V, 75-77, pl. XXVI and J. Strugnell, "Notes sur le No. 179 des 'Discoveries . . .' " Revue de Qumran 7 (1970), 250-252. 4Q179 is scheduled for republication. For 4Q 501 see M. Baillet, DJD VII, 79-80, pl. XXVIII. Translations are in F. García Martínez and E. Tigchelaar, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition. Vol. I. Leiden: Brill. 1997; vols. I and II, 1999; and M. Wise, M. Abegg, and E. Cook, The Dead Sea Scrolls. A New Translation. HarperSanFrancisco. 1996.

2 "Midrashic Exegesis and Its Precedents in the Dead Sea Scrolls," Society of Biblical Literature, Annual Meeting, Boston, November, 1999.

3 ______ occurs with ____ in Gen 25:23; Isa 34:1; 43:4, 9; Ps 2:1; 44:3, 15; 105:44; 149:7. ______ is a later word, found, to be sure, in 1 Kings 20:14-19 but more frequent in Esther and Nehemiah. It occurs with ____ in Ezek 19:8.

There may be a telescoping in our text of the phrases ____ __ and ____ _____ in Lam 1:1 but further comment must await the republication of the text.

4 The Mekhilta goes on to give other cases of verses that were uttered as one utterance. These are verses that appear to be contradictory which the Mekhilta harmonizes in this manner. This is a legal exegetical technique, not a literary one, but it works in the same way.

5 The text is problematic. See S. Buber, ____ ____ ___ Vilna:Romm. 5659/1899. (Reprinted, Tel Aviv, no date), p. 42.

6 See Knibb and Werline.

7 Hacham suggests that the Qumran community replaced the physical aspects of repentence that fasting entails by other, more spiritual, means, just as they had replaced sacrifice with prayer. There may be a more pragmatic reason for the absence of the fixed days of public fasting at Qumran, at least those days that were observed elsewhere during this period. They may be analogous with the reasons for the absence of Purim. Beckwith argued that the reason is calendrical, since Purim would always be on the sabbath in the Qumran calendar. Although the exact dates of the fasts mentioned Zechariah 8:19 are uncertain, if we adopt the rabbinic dates for these fasts we note that 9 Av is always on a sabbath at Qumran, and the other fast days are on Fridays. This would certainly be problematic and may have deterred the observance of these fast days altogether. Or it may simply be that the Qumran community did not adopt post-Torah festivals and fasts at all, except for their own special days. (This is another possible reason for the absence of Purim at Qumran.)

8 For example, the Babylonian poem Ludlul bel nemeqi, I,68, 90-95 (ANET, 596-597); Psalm 52; Ps 109:2; Ps 120:2-3.

9 Nitzan, 353-354; Falk, Daily, Sabbath, and Festival Prayers, 209-211.

10 See Nitzan, 90-107. ____ is also often part of the invocation in communal laments.

11 See M. Greenberg, Ezekiel 21-37 (New York: Doubleday, 1997), 705-709.

12 On 4Q179 seee Horgan, 223; Schiffman, "Jerusalem," 74. Since 4Q501 is similar to 4Q509, and since the latter is considered non-Qumranic in origin, it follows that 4Q501 would be the same.