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2000 BIBLIOGRAPHY


*1995* *1996* *1997* *1998* *1999* *2000* *2001*
*2002* *2003* *2004* *2005* *2006* *2007* *2008*
*2009**2010*

Last updated 19 July 2010.

Title Abegg, Martin G. Jr. "Retribution," "Visitation, Day of." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:767-770, 958-959. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Abegg, Martin G. Jr. "Review: G. Vermes, The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English." Journal of Semitic Studies 45/2 (2000) 374-375.

Aitken, James K. "Biblical Interpretation as Political Manifesto: Ben Sira in his Seleucid Setting." Journal of Jewish Studies 51/2 (2000) 191-208.

Albani, Matthias. "Horoscopes." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:370-373. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Alexander, Philip S. "The Bible in Qumran and Early Judaism." In Text in Context: Essays by Members of the Society for Old Testament Study, ed. A. D. H. Mayes, 35-62. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Alexander, Philip S. "Magic and Magical Texts," "Rules." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1, 2:502-504, 799-803. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Alexander, Philip S. "A Reconstruction and Reading of 4Q285 (4QSefer ha-Milhamah)." Revue de Qumran 19/75 (2000) 333-348.

Alexander, Philip S., and Geza Vermes. "285. 4QSefer ha-Milhamah." In Cryptic Texts and Miscellanea, Part 1, ed. Stephen J. Pfann et al., 228-246. DJD 36. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

Allen, Ronald J. "Review: James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament: Prolegomena for the Study of Christian Origins." Encounter 61/1 (2000) 105-108.

Allison, Dale C. Scriptural Allusions in the New Testament: Light from the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Dead Sea Scrolls and Christian Origins Library 5. North Richland Hills, Texas: BIBAL Press, 2000.

Amar, Joseph P. "Syria." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:908-911. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Anderson, Gary A. "Aaron," "Adam," " Law and Lawgiving," "Worship, Qumran Sect." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:1-2, 7-9, 475-477, 991-999. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Anderson, Gary A. "Ezekiel 28, the Fall of Satan, and the Adam Books." In Literature on Adam and Eve: Collected Essays, ed. Gary Anderson, Michael Stone and Johannes Tromp, 133-147. Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha 15. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Anderson, Gary A. "The Original Form of the Life of Adam and Eve: A Proposal." In Literature on Adam and Eve: Collected Essays, ed. Gary Anderson, Michael Stone and Johannes Tromp, 215-231. Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha 15. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Anderson, Gary A. "The Punishment of Adam and Eve in the Life of Adam and Eve." In Literature on Adam and Eve: Collected Essays, ed. Gary Anderson, Michael Stone and Johannes Tromp, 57-81. Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha 15. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Anderson, Gary A., Michael E. Stone, and Johannes Tromp, eds. Literature on Adam and Eve: Collected Essays. Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha 15. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Anonymous. "George W. E. Nickelsburg Publications." In For a Later Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, ed. Randal A. Argall, Beverly A. Bow and Rodney A. Werline, 299-308. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 2000.

Argall, Randal A. "A Hellenistic Jewish Source on the Essenes in Philo, Every Good Man is Free 75-91, and Josephus, Antiquities 18.18-22." In For a Later Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, ed. Randal A. Argall, Beverly A. Bow and Rodney A. Werline, 13-24. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 2000.

Argall, Randal A., Beverly A. Bow, and Rodney A. Werline, eds. For a Later Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 2000.

Aschim, Anders. "Melchizedek and Levi." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 773-788. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Astren, Fred. "Karaites," "Magharians." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:462-465, 501-502. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Asurmendi Ruiz, Jesús Maria. "Review: John J. Collins, ed., The Encyclopedia of Apocalypticism. Vol. 1, The Origins of Apocalypticism in Judaism and Christianity." Journal for the Study of Judaism 31/1 (2000) 75-81.

Atkinson, Kenneth. "Dancing at Qumran? Women and Worship at the Dead Sea." In Proceedings of the Central States Regional Meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature and the American Schools of Oriental Research, ed. Scott S. Elliott, 3:39-54. Kansas City: Central States Society of Biblical Literature, 2000.

Atkinson, Kenneth. "On the Use of Scripture in the Development of Militant Davidic Messianism at Qumran: New Light from Psalm of Solomon 17." In The Interpretation of Scripture in Early Judaism and Christianity: Studies in Language and Tradition, ed. Craig A. Evans, 106-123. JSPSup 330; Studies in Scripture in Early Judaism and Christianity 7. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000.

Atkinson, Kenneth. "Review: Gerbern S. Oegema, The Anointed and His People: Messianic Expectations from Maccabees to Bar Kochba." Review of Biblical Literature (2000) [http://www.bookreviews.org/pdf/409_422.pdf].

Attridge, Harold W. "Didache," "Hebrews, Letter to the." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:204-205, 345-346. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Aviram, Joseph. "Israel Exploration Society." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:393-394. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Aviram, Joseph. "Sukenik, Yadin, and the Scrolls." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 928-931. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Baasten, Martin F. J. "Existential Clauses in Qumran Hebrew." In Diggers at the Well: Proceedings of a Third International Symposium on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira, ed. Takamitsu Muraoka and John F. Elwolde, 1-11. STDJ 36. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Baigent, Michael, and Robert Eisenman. "A Ground-Penetrating Radar Survey: Testing the Claim for Earthquake Damage of the Second Temple Ruins at Khirbet Qumran." Qumran Chronicle 9 (2000) 131-137.

Bailey, Daniel P. "The Intertextual Relationship of Daniel 12:2 and Isaiah 26:19: Evidence from Qumran and the Greek Versions." Tyndale Bulletin 51/2 (2000) 305-308.

Baker, Margaret. "The Time is Fulfilled: Jesus and Jubilee." Scottish Journal of Theology 53/1 (2000) 22-32.

Bar-Asher, Moshe. "A Few Remarks on Mishnaic Hebrew and Aramaic in Qumran Hebrew." In Diggers at the Well: Proceedings of a Third International Symposium on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira, ed. Takamitsu Muraoka and John F. Elwolde, 12-19. STDJ 36. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Bar-Ilan, Meir. "The Attitude Toward Mamzerim in Jewish Society in Late Antiquity." Jewish History 14/2 (2000) 125-170.

Bar-Ilan, Meir. "The Reasons for Sectarianism According to the Tannaim and Josephus's Allegation of the Impurity of Oil for the Essenes." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 587-599. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Bar-Ilan, Meir. "Writing Materials." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:996-997. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Barag, Dan. "'Ein-Gedi." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:238-240. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Bauckham, Richard J. "Jewish Christians," "Jude, Letter of," "Peter, Letter of." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:409-412, 440, 656-657. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Bauckham, Richard J. "The Qumran Community and the Gospel of John." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 105-115. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Baumgarten, Albert I. "The Perception of the Past in the Damascus Document." In The Damascus Document: A Centennial of Discovery. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, 4-8 February 1998, ed. Joseph M. Baumgarten, Esther G. Chazon and Avital Pinnick, 1-15. Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 34. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Baumgarten, Albert I. "Pharisees," "Seekers after Smooth Things." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:657-663, 857-859. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Baumgarten, Albert I., ed. Apocalyptic Time. Numen Book Series, Studies in the History of Religions 86. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Baumgarten, Joseph M. "Celibacy," "Damascus Document," "Gentiles," "Judicial Procedures," "Proselytes," "Tithing." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:122-125, 166-170, 304-306, 455-460, 700-701, 947-948. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Baumgarten, Joseph M. "The Laws of the Damascus Document--Between Bible and Mishnah." In The Damascus Document: A Centennial of Discovery. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, 4-8 February 1998, ed. Joseph M. Baumgarten, Esther G. Chazon and Avital Pinnick, 17-26. STDJ 34. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Baumgarten, Joseph M. "The Use of mei nidah for General Purification." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 481-485. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Baumgarten, Joseph M., Esther G. Chazon, and Avital Pinnick, eds. The Damascus Document: A Centennial of Discovery. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, 4-8 February 1998. Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 34. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Beall, Todd S. "Epiphanius," "Essenes," Hegesippus," "Hippolytus," "Pliny the Elder." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:255-256, 262-269, 348-349, 364-365, 677-679. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Bedenbender, Andreas. Der Gott der Welt tritt auf den Sinai: Entstehung, Entwicklung, und Funktionsweise der frühjüdischen Apokalyptik. Arbeiten zur neutestamentlichen Theologie und Zeitgeschichte 8. Berlin: Institut Kirche und Judentum, 2000.

Beentjes, Pancratius C. "Canon and Scripture in the Book of Ben-Sira (Jesus Sirach/ Ecclesiasticus)." In Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: The History of Its Interpretation. Vol. 1: From the Beginnings to the Middle Ages (until 1300); Part 2: The Middle Ages, ed. Magne Saebø, Christian Brekelmans and Menahem Haran, 591-605. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2000.

Beentjes, Pancratius C. "Five Years of Ben Sira Research (1994-1998): An Annotated Bibliography." Bijdragen: Tijdschrift voor filosofie en theologie 61/1 (2000) 76-88.

Beentjes, Pancratius C. "Review: Johannes Marböck, Weisheit im Wandel: Untersuchungen zur Weisheitstheologie bei Ben Sira." Journal for the Study of Judaism 31/3 (2000) 336.

Beentjes, Pancratius C. "Review: Núria Calduch-Benages et al., Bibliographie zu Ben Sira." Bijdragen: Tijdschrift voor filosofie en theologie 61/2 (2000) 207.

Beentjes, Pancratius C. "Review: Shemaryahu Talmon, Masada VI: The Yigael Yadin Excavations 1963-1965: Final Reports: Hebrew Fragments from Masada; and Yigael Yadin, The Ben Sira Scroll from Masada." Orientalia 69/2 (2000) 186-188.

Bélis, Mireille. "In Search of the Qumran Library." Near Eastern Archaeology 63/3 (2000) 120-123.

Ben-Dov, Jonathan. "A Textual Problem and its Form-Critical Solution: Jeremiah 10:1-16." Textus 20 (2000) 97-128.

Bengtsson, Hakån. "Three Sobriquets, Their Meaning and Function: The Wicked Priest, Synagogue of Satan, and the Woman Jezebel." In The Hebrew Bible and Qumran, ed. James H. Charlesworth, 241-273. The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls 1. N. Richland Hills, Tex.: BIBAL Press, 2000.

Bengtsson, Hakån. What's in a Name? A Study of Sobriquets in the Pesharim. Uppsala: Uppsala University, 2000.

Bergmeier, Roland. Das Gesetz im Römerbrief und andere Studien zum Neuen Testament. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 121. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2000.

Bergren, Theodore A. "Prophetic Rhetoric in 6 Ezra." In For a Later Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, ed. Randal A. Argall, Beverly A. Bow and Rodney A. Werline, 25-32. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 2000.

Bernas, Casimir. "Review: Émile Puech, ed., Qumrán Grotte 4.XVIII: Textes Hébreux (4Q521-4Q528, 4Q576-4Q579) (DJD 25)." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 62/1 (2000) 130-132.

Bernick, Kathryn. "Basketry." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:84-85. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Bernstein, Moshe J. "Angels at the Aqedah: A Study in the Development of a Midrashic Motif." Dead Sea Discoveries 7/3 (2000) 263-291.

Bernstein, Moshe J. "The Aramaic Targumim: The Many Faces of the Jewish Biblical Experience." In Jewish Ways of Reading the Bible, ed. George J. Brooke, 133-165. Journal of Semitic Studies Supplement 11. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Bernstein, Moshe J. "Interpretation of Scriptures," "Pesher Habakkuk," "Pesher Hosea," "Pesher Isaiah," "Pesher Psalms," "Scriptures: Quotations and Use." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:376-383, 647-650, 650-651, 651-653, 655-656, 839-842. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Berrin, Shani L. "Lemma/Pesher Correspondence in Pesher Nahum." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 341-350. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Berrin, Shani L. "Pesharim," "Pesher Nahum." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:644-647, 653-655. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Beyerle, Stefan. "Joseph und Daniel: Zwei 'Väter' am Hofe eines fremden Königs." In Verbindungslinien: Festschrift für Werner H. Schmidt zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. Axel Graupner, Holger Delkurt and Alexander B. Ernst, 1-18. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 2000.

Bhayro, Siam. "Daniel's 'Watchers' in Enochic Exegesis of Genesis 6:1-4." In Jewish Ways of Reading the Bible, ed. George J. Brooke, 58-66. Journal of Semitic Studies Supplement 11. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Bianchi, Francesco. "La gioia nella letteratura apocrifa giudaica e negli scritti di Qumran." In Gioia-Sofferenza Persecuzione nella Bibbia, ed. Salvatore A. Panimolle, 104-117. Dizionario di spiritualità Biblico-Patristica 26. Rome: Borla, 2000.

Bianchi, Francesco. "La sofferenza nei testi apocrifi e negli scritti di Qumran." In Gioia-Soofferenza Persecuzione nella Bibbia, ed. Salvatore A. Panimolle, 118-136. Dizionario di Spiritualità Biblico-Patristica 26. Rome: Borla, 2000.

Biedron, Wojciech. "Les communautés des Therapeutes et Esséniens dans les sources grecques et juives." Qumran Chronicle 9 (2000) 77-80.

Blau, Joshua. "A Conservative View of the Language of the Dead Sea Scrolls." In Diggers at the Well: Proceedings of a Third International Symposium on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira, ed. Takamitsu Muraoka and John F. Elwolde, 20-25. STDJ 36. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Blenkinsopp, Joseph. "Ezra and Nehemiah, Books of." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:284-285. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Boccaccini, Gabriele. "Qumran and the Enoch Groups." In The Hebrew Bible and Qumran, ed. James H. Charlesworth, 63-92. The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls 1. N. Richland Hills, Tex.: BIBAL Press, 2000.

Bockmuehl, Markus. "Natural Law in the Second Temple Period." In Jewish Law in Gentile Churches: Halakhah and the Beginning of Christian Public Ethics, 87-110. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000.

Boer, Martinus C. de. "Elkesaites," "Encratites," "Nazoreans." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:247-248, 248-249, 604-606. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Bohak, Gideon. "Egypt," "Egyptian Religion," "Hellenism," "Ptolemies." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:233-234, 234-235, 350-352, 720-721. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Bohrmann, Monette. Valeurs du judaïsme du début de notre ère. Bern: Peter Lang, 2000.

Borg, Alexander. "Some Observations on the YOM HSSY Syndrome in the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls." In Diggers at the Well: Proceedings of a Third International Symposium on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira, ed. Takamitsu Muraoka and John F. Elwolde, 26-39. STDJ 36. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Bow, Beverly A. "Melchizedek's Birth Narrative in 2 Enoch 68-73: Christian Correlations." In For a Later Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, ed. Randal A. Argall, Beverly A. Bow and Rodney A. Werline, 33-41. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 2000.

Boyd-Alkalay, Esther, and Elena Libman. "Restoration Techniques at the Israel Antiquities Authority." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 875-880. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Boyd-Alkalay, Esther, and Lena Libmann [Elena Libman]. "Exhibition and Transportation of the Dead Sea Scrolls." Restaurator 21/1 (2000) 19-24.

Boyd-Alkaly, Esther. "Conservation." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:140-142. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Briend, Jacques. "Baillet, Maurice," "Barthélemy, Dominique," "Bibliotheque Nationale de France," "de Vaux, Roland," "Dupont-Sommer, André," "Samuel, Athanasius Yeshue," "Shahin, Khalil Iskandar (Kando)." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:76, 83-84, 95, 202-204, 220-221, 818-819, 869-870. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Briend, Jacques. "Témoignage en faveur de Józef Tadeusz Milik." In Józef Tadeusz Milik et cinquantenaire de la découverte des manuscrits de la mer Morte de Qumrân, ed. Dariusz Długosz and Henryk Ratajczak, 73. Warsaw: Centre Scientifíque de l'Académie Polonaise des Sciences à Paris, 2000.

Brooke, George J. "Qumran: The Cradle of the Christ?" In The Birth of Jesus: Biblical and Theological Reflections, ed. George J. Brooke, 23-34, 124-125. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000.

Brooke, George J. "Amman Museum," "Catena," "Florilegium," "Genesis, Commentary on," "James, Letter of," "Prophecy," "Rewritten Bible," "Scrolls Research." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:22-23, 121-122, 297-298, 300-302, 396-397, 694-700, 777-781, 844-851. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Brooke, George J. "Biblical Interpretation in the Qumran Scrolls and the New Testament." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 60-73. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Brooke, George J. "Body Parts in Barkhi Nafshi and the Qualifications for Membership of the Worshipping Community." In Sapiential, Liturgical and Poetical texts from Qumran: Proceedings of the Third Meeting of the International Organization for Qumran Studies, Oslo 1998, Published in Memory of Maurice Baillet, ed. Daniel K. Falk, Florentino García Martínez and Eileen M. Schuller, 79-94. STDJ 35. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Brooke, George J. "E Pluribus Unum: Textual Variety and Definitive Interpretation in the Qumran Scrolls." In The Dead Sea Scrolls in Their Historical Context, ed. Timothy H. Lim et al., 107-119. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000.

Brooke, George J. "Reading the Plain Meaning of Scripture in the Dead sea Scrolls." In Jewish Ways of Reading the Bible, ed. George J. Brooke, 67-90. Journal of Semitic Studies Supplement 11. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Brooke, George J. "Review: Eretz-Israel 26 (Frank Moore Cross volume)." Dead Sea Discoveries 7/3 (2000) 394-397.

Brooke, George J. "Review: Eugene C. Ulrich, The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Origins of the Bible." Expository Times 111/4 (2000) 132-133.

Brooke, George J. "Review: Geza Vermes, An Introduction to the Complete Dead Sea Scrolls." Dead Sea Discoveries 7/2 (2000) 257-259.

Brooke, George J. "Review: Jacob Neusner and Alan J. Avery-Peck, eds., Judaism in Late Antiquity. Part 3, Volume 2, Where We Stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism." Dead Sea Discoveries 7/2 (2000) 259-261.

Brooke, George J. "Review: John Strugnell, Daniel J. Harrington and Torleif Elgvin, eds., Qumran Cave 4.XXIV: Sapiential Texts Pt. 2: 4QInstruction (Musar leMevin) (DJD 34)." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 89 (2000) 31.

Brooke, George J. "Review: Shemaryahu Talmon, Masada 6: The Yigael Yadin Excavations 1963-1965: Final Reports: Hebrew Fragments from Masada; and Yigael Yadin, The Ben Sira Scroll from Masada." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 89 (2000) 31-32.

Broshi, Magen. "247. 4QPesher on the Apocalypse of Weeks," "468a-d. 4QUnidentified Fragments C, a-d," "468e. 4QHistorical Text F." In Cryptic Texts and Miscellanea, Part 1, ed. Stephen J. Pfann et al., 187-191, 401-405, 406-411. DJD 36. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

Broshi, Magen. "Acts of a Greek King," "Essene Gate," "Inkwells," "Qumran: Archaeology," "Scriptorium." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:5, 261-262, 375, 733-739, 831-832. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Broshi, Magen. "Matrimony and Poverty: Jesus and the Essenes." Revue de Qumran 19/4 (2000) 629-634.

Broshi, Magen, and Esther Eshel. "248. 4QHistorical Text A." In Cryptic Texts and Miscellanea, Part 1, ed. Stephen J. Pfann et al., 192-200. DJD 36. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

Broshi, Magen, and Hanan Eshel. "Daily Life at Qumran." Near Eastern Archaeology 63/3 (2000) 136-137.

Brown, Raymond E. "John, Gospel and Letters of." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:414-417. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Brug, John F. "Review: Geza Vermes, An Introduction to the Complete Dead Sea Scrolls." Wisconsin Lutheran Quarterly 97/3 (2000) 238-239.

Calduch-Benages, Núria. "Es mejor perdonar que guardar rencor: Estudio de Sir 27,30-28,7." Gregorianum 81/3 (2000) 419-439.

Campbell, Jonathan G. "4QMMTd and the Tripartite Canon." Journal of Jewish Studies 51/2 (2000) 181-190.

Campbell, Jonathan G. "Review: Edward D. Herbert, Reconstructing Biblical Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Method Applied to the Reconstruction of 4QSama." Journal of Theological Studies 51/2 (2000) 623-625.

Campbell, Jonathan G. "Review: Judith H. Newman, Praying by the Book: The Scripturalization of Prayer in Second Temple Judaism." Journal of Jewish Studies 51/1 (2000) 150-151.

Campbell, Jonathan G. "Review: Peter W. Flint, The Dead Sea Psalms Scrolls and the Book of Psalms." Journal of Theological Studies 51/2 (2000) 626-628.

Campbell, Jonathan G. "Review: Sarianna Metso, The Textual Development of the Qumran Community Rule." Journal of Theological Studies 51/2 (2000) 628-630.

Cansdale, Lena. "The Metamorphosis of the Name 'Qumran'." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 631-636. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

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Cohen, Nahum. "4-5e. Jericho pap gr: Introduction," "4. Jericho papDeed of Sale or Lease? gr," "5a-5d. Jericho papUnidentified Text(s)," "5e. Jericho papTransaction Concerning Seeds gr," "19-19h. Jericho pap gr: Introduction," "19. Jericho papWritten Order? gr," "19a. Jericho papUnidentified Text A gr," "19b. Jericho papList of Witnesses? gr," "19c-h. Jericho papUnidentified Texts B gr," Indices to the Greek Documentary Texts." In Miscellaneous Texts from the Judaean Desert, ed. James H. Charlesworth et al., 43, 45-47, 49-50, 51-52, 101, 103-105, 107, 109, 111-113, 247-250. DJD 38. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

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Cotton, Hannah M. "16. Jericho papText Mentioning the Emperor Hadrian gr," "17. Jericho papDeed? gr," "18. Jericho papFiscal Acknowledgement gr," "4. 8H9ev papUnidentified Text gr," "2. 1Mish papList of Names and Account gr," "4-6. 34S9e)elim: Introduction," "4. 34S9e papCensus List from Judaea or Arabia gr," "5. 34S9e papAccount gr." In Miscellaneous Texts from the Judaean Desert, ed. James H. Charlesworth et al., 93-95, 97, 99-100, 171-172, 203-204, 215, 217-225, 227-228. DJD 38. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

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Hayes, John H. "Judea: History." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:447-455. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Hayward, C. T. Robert. "Review: Michael E. Stone and Esther G. Chazon, eds., Biblical Perspectives: Early Use and Interpretation of the Bible in Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Proceedings of the First International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, 12-14 May 1996." Vetus Testamentum 50/3 (2000) 431.

Hayward, C. T. Robert. "Theapeutae." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:943-946. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Hempel, Charlotte. "4QOrda (4Q159) and the Laws of the Damascus Document." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 372-376. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Hempel, Charlotte. The Damascus Texts. Companion to the Qumran Scrolls 1. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000.

Hempel, Charlotte. "The Laws of the Damascus Document and 4QMMT." In The Damascus Document: A Centennial of Discovery. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, 4-8 February 1998, ed. Joseph M. Baumgarten, Esther G. Chazon and Avital Pinnick, 69-84. STDJ 34. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Hempel, Charlotte. "The Place of the Book of Jubilees at Qumran and Beyond." In The Dead Sea Scrolls in Their Historical Context, ed. Timothy H. Lim et al., 187-196. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000.

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Hempel, Charlotte. "Review: Lena Cansdale, Qumran and the Essenes: A Re-Evaluation of the Evidence." Palestine Exploration Quarterly 132 (2000) 80.

Hempel, Charlotte. "Review: Loren T. Stuckenbruck, The Book of Giants from Qumran: Texts, Translation and Commentary." Journal of Semitic Studies 45/1 (2000) 172-174.

Hempel, Charlotte. "Review: Magen Broshi et al., eds., Qumran Cave 4.XIV: Parabiblical Texts, Part 2 (DJD 19)." Journal of Semitic Studies 45/1 (2000) 179-181.

Hempel, Charlotte. "Review: Martin G. Abegg, Peter W. Flint, and Eugene C. Ulrich, The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible." Expository Times 111/12 (2000) 420.

Hempel, Charlotte. "Review: Matthias Albani, Jörg Frey, and Armin Lange, eds., Studies in the Book of Jubilees." Dead Sea Discoveries 7/2 (2000) 254-256.

Hempel, Charlotte. "Review: Sarianna Metso, The Textual Development of the Qumran Community Rule." Vetus Testamentum 50/2 (2000) 273-274.

Hendel, Ronald S. "Qumran and a New Edition of the Hebrew Bible." In The Hebrew Bible and Qumran, ed. James H. Charlesworth, 197-217. The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls 1. N. Richland Hills, Tex.: BIBAL Press, 2000.

Hendel, Ronald S. "Scriptures: Translations." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:836-839. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Hendel, Ronald S. "The Text of the Torah after Qumran: Prospects and Retrospects." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 8-11. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Hengel, Martin. "Qumran and Hellenism." In Religion in the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. John J. Collins and Robert A. Kugler, 46-56. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2000.

Herr, Larry G. "Dead Sea." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:181-183. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Hidiroglou, Patricia. "Aqueducts, Basins, and Cisterns: The Water Systems at Qumran." Near Eastern Archaeology 63/3 (2000) 138-139.

Hidiroglou, Patricia. "L'eau et les bains à Qumrân." Revue des Études Juives 159/1-2 (2000) 19-47.

Himmelfarb, Martha. "The Wisdom of the Scribe, the Wisdom of the Priest, and the Wisdom of the King according to Ben Sira." In For a Later Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, ed. Randal A. Argall, Beverly A. Bow and Rodney A. Werline, 89-99. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 2000.

Hirschfeld, Yizhar. "The Architectural Context of Qumran." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 673-683. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Hirschfeld, Yizhar. "‫ יישוב מתבודדים מעל עין-גדי [A Community of Hermits above Ein Gedi]." Cathedra 96 (2000) 8-40.

Hoek, Annewies van den. "Endowed with Reason or Glued to the Senses? Philo’s Thoughts on Adam and Eve." In The Creation of Man and Woman: Interpretations of the Biblical Narratives in Jewish and Christian Traditions, ed. Gerard P. Luttikhuizen, 63-75. Themes in Biblical Narrative 3. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Höffken, Peter. "Jesus Sirachs Darstellung der Interaktion des Königs Hiskija und des Propheten Jesaja (Sir 48:17-25)." Journal for the Study of Judaism 31/2 (2000) 162-175.

Hoffmann, Matthias, and Loren T. Stuckenbruck. "Bibliographische Dokumentation: Qumran." Zeitschrift für Althebraistik 13/1 (2000) 121-131.

Hofmann, Norbert Johannes. Die Assumptio Mosis: Studien zur Rezeption massgültiger Überlieferung. Journal for the Study of Judaism Supplement Series 67. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Hollenback, George M. "The Qumran Roundel: An Equatorial Sundial?" Dead Sea Discoveries 7/2 (2000) 123-129.

Holst, Søren. "Fra hulerne til hylderne. En guide til dansksproget litteratur om Dødehavsrullerne." Bibliana 1/2 (2000) 58-72.

Horsley, Richard A. "Social Relations and Social Conflict in the Epistle of Enoch." In For a Later Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, ed. Randal A. Argall, Beverly A. Bow and Rodney A. Werline, 100-115. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 2000.

Horst, Pieter W. van der. "Messianisme en gebed in de rollen van de Dode Zee: Een Bespreking." Nederlands Theologisch Tijdschrift 54/1 (2000) 35-47.

Horwitz, Liora Kolska. "Skeletal Remains: Nonhuman Remains." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:882-884. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Humbert, Jean-Baptiste. "An Essene Identity at Qumran." Near Eastern Archaeology 63/3 (2000) 174.

Humbert, Jean-Baptiste. "Interpreting the Qumran Site." Near Eastern Archaeology 63/3 (2000) 140-143.

Humbert, Jean-Baptiste. "Khirbet Qumrân: un site enigmatique." In Aux origines du Christianisme, ed. Pierre Geoltrain, 131-141. Paris: Gallimard et le Monde de la Bible, 2000.

Hurowitz, Victor Avigdor. "Assyria," "Babylon." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:68-69, 75-76. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Hurvitz, Avi. "Was QH a 'Spoken' Language? On Some Recent Views and Positions: Comments." In Diggers at the Well: Proceedings of a Third International Symposium on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira, ed. Takamitsu Muraoka and John F. Elwolde, 110-114. STDJ 36. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Hutchesson, Ian. "The Essene Hypothesis after Fifty Years: An Assessment." Qumran Chronicle 9 (2000) 17-34.

Ibba, Giovanni. La sapienza di Qumran: il patto, la luce e le tenebre, l’illuminazione. Roma: Città nuova, 2000.

Ilan, Tal. "Names and Naming," "Shelamzion Alexandra." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:596-600, 872-874. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Ilan, Tal. "Women's Archives in the Judaean Desert." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 755-760. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Isaac, Ephraim. "Textual Problems in 4QEnoch." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 426-433. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Jacob, Irene. "Judea: Flora." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:444. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Jacob, Walter. "Judea: Flora." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:444. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Jastram, Nathan. "Number, Book of," "Proverbs, Book of." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:615-619, 701-702. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Jenner, Konrad Dirk. "Petucha and Setuma: Tools for Interpretation or Simply a Matter of Lay-Out? A Study of the Relations between Layout, Arrangement, Reading and Interpretation of the Text in the Apocalypse of Isaiah (Isa. 24-27)." In Studies in Isaiah 24-27: the Isaiah Workshop (De Jesaja Werkplaats), ed. Hendrik Jan Bosman and Harm van Grol, 81-117. Oudtestamentische studien 43. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Jones, F. Stanley. "Pseudo-Clementine Literature." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:717-719. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Jonge, Marinus de. "The Christian Origin of the Greek Life of Adam and Eve." In Literature on Adam and Eve: Collected Essays, ed. Gary Anderson, Michael Stone and Johannes Tromp, 347-363. Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha 15. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Jonge, Marinus de. "The Literary Development of the Life of Adam and Eve." In Literature on Adam and Eve: Collected Essays, ed. Gary Anderson, Michael Stone and Johannes Tromp, 239-249. Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha 15. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Jonge, Marinus de. "The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs and Related Qumran Fragments." In For a Later Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, ed. Randal A. Argall, Beverly A. Bow and Rodney A. Werline, 63-77. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 2000.

Joosten, Jan. "The Knowledge and Use of Hebrew in the Hellenistic Period: Qumran and the Septuagint." In Diggers at the Well: Proceedings of a Third International Symposium on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira, ed. Takamitsu Muraoka and John F. Elwolde, 115-130. STDJ 36. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Jucci, Elio. "Nuovi Manoscritti del Mar Morto? Annotazioni sul cosidetto 'Rotolo dell'Angelo' ovvero 'Il Libro delle Visioni di Yeshua ben Padiah'." Bibbia e Oriente 203 (2000) 41-48.

Kaddari, Menahem Zvi. "משפטי 'ש-' ב'מקצת מעשי התורה' [še- Clauses in Miqsat Maase Ha-Torah]." Leshonenu 63/3-4 (2000) 203-207.

Kahn, Lisa. "Glassware." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:311-313. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Kaiser, Otto. "Review: Núria Calduch-Benages and Jacques Vermeylen, eds., Treasures of Wisdom: Studies in Ben Sira and the Book of Wisdom." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 112/3 (2000) 482.

Kalimi, Isaac. ספר דברי הימים: כתיבה היסטורית ואמצעים ספרותיים [The Book of Chronicles: Historical Writing and Literary Devices]. Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 2000.

Kampen, John I. "Aspects of Wisdom in the Gospel of Matthew in Light of the New Qumran Evidence." In Sapiential, Liturgical and Poetical Texts from Qumran: Proceedings of the Third Meeting of the International Organization for Qumran Studies, Oslo 1998, Published in Memory of Maurice Baillet, ed. Daniel K. Falk, Florentino García Martínez and Eileen M. Schuller, 227-239. STDJ 35. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Kampen, John I. "Ethics," "Hasideans," "Matthew, Gospel of." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:272-276, 328-329, 525-529. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Kampen, John I. "The Significance of the Scrolls for the Study of the Book of Matthew." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 157-169. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Kapera, Zdzisław J. "Some Notes on the Statistical Elements in the Interpretation of the Qumran Cemetery." Qumran Chronicle 9 (2000) 139-151.

Kapera, Zdzisław J. "Two Recent German Qumran Colloquia in Schwerte and Eichstätt." Qumran Chronicle 9 (2000) 81-85.

Kapera, Zdzisław Jan. "The First Comprehensive Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition." Qumran Chronicle 9/1 (2000) 92-98.

Kapera, Zdzisław Jan. "The First Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Part I)." Qumran Chronicle 9 (2000) 193-200.

Kapera, Zdzisław Jan. "The Jerusalem Congress of 1997: Sum up and Challenges of the Dead Sea Scrolls Research." Qumran Chronicle 9 (2000) 171-192.

Kapera, Zdzisław Jan. "Józef Tadeusz Milik--Courte Bibliographie du Champollion des rouleaux de la mer Morte." In Józef Tadeusz Milik et cinquantenaire de la découverte des manuscrits de la mer Morte de Qumrân, ed. Dariusz Długosz and Henryk Ratajczak, 15-30. Warsaw: Centre Scientifíque de l'Académie Polonaise des Sciences à Paris, 2000.

Kapera, Zdzisław Jan. "Muchowski's One-Volume Companion to the Dead Sea Scrolls." Qumran Chronicle 9 (2000) 201-209.

Kapera, Zdzisław Jan. "The Qumran 'Collectio Kurth' comes to Eichstätt." Qumran Chronicle 9 (2000) 86-91.

Kapera, Zdzisław Jan. "Review: A. Schick, Faszination Qumran." Qumran Chronicle 9 (2000) 211-214.

Kapera, Zdzisław Jan, and Jacek Konik. "How Many Tombs in Qumran?" Qumran Chronicle 9 (2000) 35-49.

Katzoff, Ranon. "Babatha, Contracts of." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:73-75, 142-144. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Kaufman, Asher. "The Courts of the First Temple and of the Temple in the Temple Scroll." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 684-690. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Killebrew, Ann E. "Bone Artifacts," "Cosmetics," "Leather Goods," "Wooden Artifacts." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:102-103, 148-149, 477-479, 987-989. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Kirtchuk, Pablo-Isaac. "Some Cognitive and Typological Semantic Remarks on the Language of 4QMMTa." In Diggers at the Well: Proceedings of a Third International Symposium on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira, ed. Takamitsu Muraoka and John F. Elwolde, 131-136. STDJ 36. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Kister, Menahem. "Some Observations on Vocabulary and Style in the Dead Sea Scrolls." In Diggers at the Well: Proceedings of a Third International Symposium on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira, ed. Takamitsu Muraoka and John F. Elwolde, 137-165. STDJ 36. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Kister, Menahem. "Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:990-991. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Klawans, Jonathan. Impurity and Sin in Ancient Judaism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Knibb, Michael A. "Community Organization in the Damascus Document," "Community Organization in Other Texts," "Exile," "Interpreter of the Law," "Joseph, Apocryphon of," "Rule of the Community," "Teacher of Righteousness." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:135-138, 138-140, 276-277, 383-384, 426-427, 793-797, 918-921. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Knibb, Michael A. "Review: Florentino García Martínez and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, eds., The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition." Journal for the Study of Judaism 31/1 (2000) 87-91.

Knohl, Israel. The Messiah Before Jesus: The Suffering Servant of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Knohl, Israel. בעקבות המשיח. Jerusalem: Shoken, 2000.

Knox, Keith T., Roger L. Easton, Jr., and Robert H. Johnston. "Digital Miracles: Revealing Invisible Scripts." In The Hebrew Bible and Qumran, ed. James H. Charlesworth, 43-61. The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls 1. N. Richland Hills, Tex.: BIBAL Press, 2000.

Koch, Klaus. "Neutestamentliche Profetenauslegung in vorchristlicher Zeit? Der Habakuk-Peschär aus Qumran." In Schriftauslegung in der Schrift: Festschrift für Odil Hannes Steck zu seinem 65. Geburtstag, ed. Reinhard G. Kratz, Thomas Krüger and Konrad Schmid, 321-334. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 300. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2000.

Koch, Klaus. "Parthian Empire," "Persian Empire," "Zoroastrianism." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:636, 642-644, 1010-1012. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Köckert, Matthias. "Review: Renate Egger-Wenzel and Ingrid Krammer, eds., Der Einzelne und seine Gemeinschaft bei Ben Sira." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 112/1 (2000) 123.

Konkel, August H. "Review: Eugene C. Ulrich, The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Origins of the Bible." Didaskalia 11/2 (2000) 122-124.

Konkel, August H. "Review: Gabriele Boccaccini, Beyond the Essene Hypothesis: The Parting of the Ways between Qumran and Enochic Judaism." Didaskalia 11/2 (2000) 115-118.

Konkel, August H. "Review: Joseph A. Fitzmyer, The Dead Sea Scrolls and Christian Origins." Didaskalia 12/1 (2000) 114-116.

Kooij, Arie van der. "Textual Witnesses to the Hebrew Bible and the History of Reception: The Case of Habakkuk 1:11-12." In Die Textfunde vom Toten Meer und der Text der hebrהischen Bibel, ed. Ulrich Dahmen, Armin Lange and Hermann Lichtenberger, 91-108. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 2000.

Kraemer, Ross. "When Asenath Met Joseph: A Postscript." In For a Later Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, ed. Randal A. Argall, Beverly A. Bow and Rodney A. Werline, 128-135. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 2000.

Kraft, Robert A. "Apostolic Fathers." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:44-45. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Kraft, Robert A. "Early Developments of the 'Two-Ways Tradition(s),' in Retrospect." In For a Later Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, ed. Randal A. Argall, Beverly A. Bow and Rodney A. Werline, 136-143. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 2000.

Krašovec, Jože. "Sources of Confession of Sin in 1QS 1:24-26 and CD 20:28-30." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 306-321. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Kugel, James L. "Biblical Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha and the Hebrew of the Second Temple Period." In Diggers at the Well: Proceedings of a Third International Symposium on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira, ed. Takamitsu Muraoka and John F. Elwolde, 166-177. STDJ 36. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Kugler, Robert A. "Naphtali, Testament of," "Priests," "Testaments," "Twelve Patriarchs, Testaments of," "Zadok." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:602-603, 688-693, 933-936, 952-953, 1005. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Kugler, Robert A. "Review: Émile Puech, ed., Qumrân Grotte 4.XVIII: Textes Hébreux (4Q521-4Q528, 4Q576-4Q579) (DJD 25)." Review of Biblical Literature (2000) [http://www.bookreviews.org/pdf/2052_1066.pdf].

Kugler, Robert A. "Review: Frederick H. Cryer and Thomas L. Thompson, eds., Qumran between the Old and New Testaments." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 62/1 (2000) 171-173.

Kugler, Robert A. "Rewriting Rubrics: Sacrifice and the Religion of Qumran." In Religion in the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. John J. Collins and Robert A. Kugler, 90-112. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2000.

Kuhn, Heinz-Wolfgang. "Jesus." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:404-408. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Kuhn, Heinz-Wolfgang. "Qumran Texts and the Historical Jesus: Parallels in Contrast." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 573-580. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Kuhn, Heinz-Wolfgang. "The Wisdom Passage in 1 Corinthians 2:6-16 between Qumran and Proto-Gnosticism." In Sapiential, Liturgical and Poetical texts from Qumran: Proceedings of the Third Meeting of the International Organization for Qumran Studies, Oslo 1998, Published in Memory of Maurice Baillet, ed. Daniel K. Falk, Florentino García Martínez and Eileen M. Schuller, 240-253. STDJ 35. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Laato, Antti. "Review: Gerbern S. Oegema, The Anointed and His People: Messianic Expectations from the Maccabees to Bar Kochba." Review of Biblical Literature (2000) [http://www.bookreviews.org/pdf/409_423.pdf].

Lacerenza, Giancarlo. "Un nouveau fragment en écriture paléo-hébraïque." Revue de Qumran 19/75 (2000) 441-447.

Lange, Armin. "440a. 4QHodayot-like Text D,” “440b. 4QFragment Mentioning a Court,” “468f. 4QHistorical Text G,” “468g. 4QEschatological Work A?” “468i. 4QSectarian Text?” “468j. 4QpapUnclassified Fragments,” “7. XQUnidentified Text." In Cryptic Texts and Miscellanea, Part 1, ed. Stephen J. Pfann et al., 347-348, 349-350, 412-413, 414-415, 416-417, 418-419, 492-493. DJD 36. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

Lange, Armin. "The Determination of Fate by the Oracle of Lot in the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Hebrew Bible and Ancient Mesopotamian Literature." In Sapiential, Liturgical and Poetical texts from Qumran: Proceedings of the Third Meeting of the International Organization for Qumran Studies, Oslo 1998, Published in Memory of Maurice Baillet, ed. Daniel K. Falk, Florentino García Martínez and Eileen M. Schuller, 39-48. STDJ 35. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Lange, Armin. "Eschatological Wisdom in the Book of Qohelet and the Dead Sea Scrolls." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 817-825. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Lange, Armin. "Review: Charlotte Hempel, The Laws of the Damascus Document: Sources, Traditions, and Redaction." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 112/2 (2000) 297.

Lange, Armin. "Solomon." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:886. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Laperrousaz, Ernest-Marie. "L'attente du Messie en Palestine, à la veille et au début de l'ère chrétienne." La Pensée 322 (2000) 11-24.

Laperrousaz, Ernest-Marie. "Qumrân et les manuscrits de la mer Morte." In Józef Tadeusz Milik et cinquantenaire de la découverte des manuscrits de la mer Morte de Qumrân, ed. Dariusz Długosz and Henryk Ratajczak, 75-82. Warsaw: Centre Scientifíque de l'Académie Polonaise des Sciences à Paris, 2000.

Laperrousaz, Ernest-Marie. "Témoignage en faveur de Józef Tadeusz Milik." In Józef Tadeusz Milik et cinquantenaire de la découverte des manuscrits de la mer Morte de Qumrân, ed. Dariusz Długosz and Henryk Ratajczak, 71. Warsaw: Centre Scientifíque de l'Académie Polonaise des Sciences à Paris, 2000.

Lapp, Nancy L. "Daliyeh, Wadi ed-: Archaeology." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:161-162. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Larson, Erik. "458. 4QNarrative A," "459. 4QNarrative Work Mentioning Lebanon," "460. 4QNarrative Work and Prayer," "461. 4QNarrative B," "465. 4QpapText Mentioning Samson?" "469. 4QNarrative I." In Cryptic Texts and Miscellanea, Part 1, ed. Stephen J. Pfann et al., 353-365, 366-368, 369-386, 387-393, 394-395 433-438. DJD 36. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

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Puech, Émile, Noël Lacoudre, and Farah Mébarki. "The Mysteries of the 'Copper Scroll'." Near Eastern Archaeology 63/3 (2000) 152-153.

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Tov, Emanuel. "Five Decades of Discoveries, Editions, and Research." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 951-960. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Tov, Emanuel. "Further Evidence for the Existence of a Qumran Scribal School." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 199-216. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Tov, Emanuel. "A Qumran Origin for the Masada Non-biblical Texts?" Dead Sea Discoveries 7/1 (2000) 57-73.

Trebolle Barrera, Julio. "118. 4QChr." In Qumran Cave 4.XI: Psalms to Chronicles, ed. Eugene C. Ulrich et al., 295-297. DJD 16. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

Trebolle Barrera, Julio. "A 'Canon within a Canon': Two Series of Old Testament Books Differently Transmitted, Interpreted and Authorized." Revue de Qumran 19/75 (2000) 383-399.

Trebolle Barrera, Julio. "Chronicles, First and Second Books of," "Elijah," "Elisha," "Judges, Book of," "Kings, First and Second Books of." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:129, 246, 246-247, 455, 467-468. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Trebolle Barrera, Julio. "Qumran Evidence for a Biblical Standard Text and for Non-standard and Parabiblical Texts." In The Dead Sea Scrolls in Their Historical Context, ed. Timothy H. Lim et al., 89-106. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000.

Tromp, Johannes. "Cain and Abel in the Greek and Armenian/Gregorian Recensions of the Life of Adam and Eve." In Literature on Adam and Eve: Collected Essays, ed. Gary Anderson, Michael Stone and Johannes Tromp, 277-296. Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha 15. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Tucket, Christopher M. "Q Source." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:732-733. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Ulfgard, Håkan. "The Branch in the Last Days: Observations on the New Covenant before and after the Messiah." In The Dead Sea Scrolls in Their Historical Context, ed. Timothy H. Lim et al., 233-247. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000.

Ulrich, Eugene C. "109. 4QQoha," "110. 4QQohb." In Qumran Cave 4.XI: Psalms to Chronicles, ed. Eugene C. Ulrich et al., 221-226, 227. DJD 16. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

Ulrich, Eugene C. "112. 4QDana," "113. 4QDanb," "114. 4QDanc," "116. 4QDane." In Qumran Cave 4.XI: Psalms to Chronicles, ed. Eugene C. Ulrich et al., 239-254, 255-267, 269-277, 287-289. DJD 16. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

Ulrich, Eugene C. "117. 4QEzra." In Qumran Cave 4.XI: Psalms to Chronicles, ed. Eugene C. Ulrich et al., 291-293. DJD 16. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

Ulrich, Eugene C. "Aeneid," "Canon," "Cross, Frank Moore," "Daniel, Book of: Hebrew and Aramaic Text," "Isaiah, Book of," "Septuagint," "Skehan, Patrick W." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:10-11, 117-120, 157-158, 170-174, 385-388, 863-868, 880. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Ulrich, Eugene C. "The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Hebrew Scriptural Texts." In The Hebrew Bible and Qumran, ed. James H. Charlesworth, 105-133. The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls 1. N. Richland Hills, Tex.: BIBAL Press, 2000.

Ulrich, Eugene C. "The Dead Sea Scrolls and their Implications for an Edition of the Septuagint Psalter." In Der Septuaginta-Psalter und seine Tochterübersetzungen: Symposium in Göttingen 1997, ed. Anneli Aejmelaeus and Udo Quast, 323-336. Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Ph.-Hist. Klasse III:230. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 2000.

Ulrich, Eugene C. "The Qumran Biblical Scrolls--the Scriptures of Late Second Temple Judaism." In The Dead Sea Scrolls in Their Historical Context, ed. Timothy H. Lim et al., 67-87. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000.

Ulrich, Eugene C. "The Qumran Scrolls and the Biblical Text." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 51-59. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Ulrich, Eugene C., Frank Moore Cross, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, Peter W. Flint, Sarianna Metso, Catherine M. Murphy, Curt Niccum, Patrick W. Skehan, Emanuel Tov, and Julio Trebolle Barrera, eds. Qumran Cave 4.XI: Psalms to Chronicles. DJD 16. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

Ulrich, Eugene C., and Sarianno Metso. "99. 4QJoba," "100. 4QJobb." In Qumran Cave 4.XI: Psalms to Chronicles, ed. Eugene C. Ulrich et al., 171-178, 179-180. DJD 16. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

Ulrich, Eugene C., and Catherine M. Murphy. "104. 4QRutha," "105. 4QRuthb." In Qumran Cave 4.XI: Psalms to Chronicles, ed. Eugene C. Ulrich et al., 187-189, 191-194. DJD 16. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

Ulrich, Eugene C., and Curt Niccum. "115. 4QDand." In Qumran Cave 4.XI: Psalms to Chronicles, ed. Eugene C. Ulrich et al., 279-286. DJD 16. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

Van de Water, Rick. "Reconsidering Palaeographic and Radiocarbon Dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls." Revue de Qumran 19/75 (2000) 423-439.

VanBeek, Lawrence. "1 Enoch among Jews and Christians: A Fringe Connection?" In Christian-Jewish Relations through the Centuries, ed. Stanley E. Porter and Brook W.R. Pearson, 93-115. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series 192. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000.

VanderKam, James C. "The Angel of the Presence in the Book of Jubilees." Dead Sea Discoveries 7/3 (2000) 378-393.

VanderKam, James C. "Apocalyptic Tradition in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Religion of Qumran." In Religion in the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. John J. Collins and Robert A. Kugler, 113-134. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2000.

VanderKam, James C. "Apostolic Fathers," "Covenant," "Festivals," "Jubilees, Book of," "Passover," "Ro'sh ha-Shanah," "Scrolls Research," "Shavu'ot," "Sukkot," "Yom Kippur." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:44-45, 151-155, 290-292, 434-438, 637-638, 790-797, 844-851, 871-872, 903-905, 1001-1003. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

VanderKam, James C. "Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls." Near Eastern Archaeology 63/3 (2000) 164-167.

VanderKam, James C. "Covenant and Biblical Interpretation in Jubilees 6." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 92-104. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

VanderKam, James C. From Revelation to Canon: Studies in the Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Literature. Journal for the Study of Judaism Supplement Series 62. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

VanderKam, James C. "Sabbatical Chronologies in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature." In The Dead Sea Scrolls in Their Historical Context, ed. Timothy H. Lim et al., 159-178. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000.

VanderKam, James C. "Studies on the Prologue and Jubilees 1." In For a Later Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, ed. Randal A. Argall, Beverly A. Bow and Rodney A. Werline, 266-279. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 2000.

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Vázquez Allegue, Jaime. "El Segundo Exodo en Qumrán (4Q462)." Salmanticensis 47 (2000) 61-83.

Vázquez Allegue, Jaime. "La comunidad de los hombres de Qumran." Compostellanum 45 (2000) 39-62.

Vázquez Allegue, Jaime. Los Hijos de la Luz y los Hijos de las Tinieblas: El prólogo de la Regla de la Communidad de Qumrán. Biblioteca Midrásica 21. Estella, Spain: Editorial Verbo Divino, 2000.

Vermes, Geza. "The Qumran Community, the Essenes, and Nascent Christianity." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 581-586. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Vermes, Geza. "Review: Ernest-Marie Laperrousaz, ed., Qoumrân et les manuscrits de la Mer Morte: Un cinquantenaire." Journal of Jewish Studies 51/1 (2000) 155.

Vermes, Geza. "Review: Frederick H. Cryer and Thomas L. Thompson, eds., Qumran between the Old and New Testaments." Journal of Jewish Studies 51/1 (2000) 153-155.

Vermes, Geza. "Review: James C. VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time." Journal of Jewish Studies 51/1 (2000) 155-156.

Vermes, Geza. "Review: Michael E. Stone and Esther G. Chazon, eds., Biblical Perspectives: Early Use and Interpretation of the Bible in Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Proceedings of the First International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, 12-14 May 1996." Journal of Jewish Studies 51/1 (2000) 153-155.

Vermes, Geza. "Review: Stanley E. Porter and Craig A. Evans, eds., The Scrolls and the Scriptures: Qumran Fifty Years After." Journal of Jewish Studies 51/1 (2000) 153-155.

Viviano, Benedict T. "Beatitudes," "Study and Education." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:89-90, 896-898. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Wacholder, Ben Zion. "Deutero Ezekiel and Jeremiah (4Q384-4Q391): Identifying the Dry Bones of Ezekiel 37 as the Essenes." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 445-461. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Walck, Leslie W. "Truth." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:950-952. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Wassen, Cecilia. "Women: Daily Life." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:981-984. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Webb, Robert L. "John the Baptist." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:418-421. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Wechsler, Michael G. "Two Para-biblical Novellae from Qumran Cave 4: A Reevaluation of 4Q550." Dead Sea Discoveries 7/2 (2000) 130-172.

Weinfeld, Moshe. "הליטניה 'אלוהינו בשמים' ועקבותיה במגילות קומראן [The Litany 'Elohenu she-Bashamayim' and its Reflection in the Qumran Scrolls]." Tarbiz 69/2 (2000) 239-242.

Weissenberg, Hanne von. "Qumranin kirjasto. Fragmenttien palapelistä valoa juutalaisuuden historiaan." Tieteessä tapahtuu 4 (2000) 18-22.

Werline, Rodney A. "The Curses of the Covenant Renewal Ceremony in 1QS 1.16-2.19 and the Prayers of the Condemned." In For a Later Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, ed. Randal A. Argall, Beverly A. Bow and Rodney A. Werline, 280-288. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 2000.

Werman, Cana. "CD 11:17: Apart from Your Sabbaths." In The Damascus Document: A Centennial of Discovery. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, 4-8 February 1998, ed. Joseph M. Baumgarten, Esther G. Chazon and Avital Pinnick, 201-212. STDJ 34. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Werman, Cana. "The Concept of Holiness and the Requirements of Purity in Second Temple and Tannaic Literature." In Purity and Holiness: The Heritage of Leviticus, ed. M.J.H.M. Poorthuis and J. Schwartz, 163-179. Jewish and Christian Perspectives Series 2. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Werman, Cana. "The Sons of Zadok." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 623-630. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Williams, Margaret H. "Prefects and Procurators," "Rome." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:686-687, 787-790. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Wilson, E. Jan. "11QtgJob and the Peshitta Job." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 411-417. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Wilson, Edmund. Israel and the Dead Sea Scrolls. rpt. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux,1978 ed. Wakefield, R.I.: Moyer Bell, 2000.

Winn Leith, Mary Joan. "Seals and Coins in Persian Period Samaria." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 691-707. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Wise, Michael O. "Crucifixion," "Healing." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:158-159, 336-338. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Wise, Michael O. "מי כמוני באלים: A Study of 4Q491c, 4Q471b, 4Q427 7 and 1QHA 25:35-26:10." Dead Sea Discoveries 7/2 (2000) 173-219.

Wolfson, Elliot R. "Hekhalot Literature," "Kabbalah." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:349-350, 461-462. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Wolters, Al. "Copper Scroll." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:144-148. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Wood, Bryant G. "Cisterns and Reservoirs," "Water Systems." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1-2:131-133, 968-970. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Woude, Adam S. van der. "Job, Targum of." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:413-414. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Wright, Benjamin G. III. "The Apocryphon of Ezekiel and 4QPseudo-Ezekiel." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 462-480. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Wright, Benjamin G. III. "Ben Sira, Book of," "Early Christian Writings." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 1:91-93, 223-225. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Wright, Benjamin G. III. "Notes on 4Q391 (papPseudo-Ezekiele) and Biblical Ezekiel." In For a Later Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel, Early Judaism and Early Christianity, ed. Randal A. Argall, Beverly Bow and Rodney A. Werline, 289-298. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 2000.

Xeravits, Géza G. "Considerations on Canon and the Dead Sea Scrolls." Qumran Chronicle 9 (2000) 165-178.

Xeravits, Géza G. "The Early History of Qumran's Messianic Expectations." Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 76/1 (2000) 113-121.

Xeravits, Géza G. "Review: James H. Charlesworth, Hermann Lichtenberger, and Gerbern S. Oegema, eds., Qumran-Messianism: Studies on the Messianic Expectations in the Dead Sea Scrolls." Journal for the Study of Judaism 31/3 (2000) 347-349.

Yardeni, Ada. "8. Jericho papDeed A ar," "9. Jericho papDeed A heb?" "10. Jericho papDeed B heb?" "11. Jericho papDeed or Letter," "12. Jericho papDeed B ar," "13. Jericho papUnclassified Text ar," "14. Jericho papUnclassified Text heb?" "15. Jericho papUnclassified Fragments ar/heb," "2. Sdeir papPromissory Note? ar." In Miscellaneous Texts from the Judaean Desert, ed. James H. Charlesworth et al., 63-65, 67-69, 71-72, 73-75, 77-78, 79-80, 81-82, 83-91, 125-129. DJD 38. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

Yardeni, Ada. "234. 4QExercitium Calami A," "355. 4QAccount C ar or heb," "360. 4QExercitium Calami B." In Cryptic Texts and Miscellanea, Part 1, ed. Stephen J. Pfann et al., 185-186, 296, 297. DJD 36. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

Yardeni, Ada. "Notes on Two Unpublished Nabataean Deeds from Nahal Hever--P. Yadin 2 and 3." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 862-874. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Yardeni, Ada. אוסף תעודות ארמיות, עבריות ונבטיות ממדבר יהודה וחומר קרוב [Textbook of Aramaic, Hebrew and Nabataean Texts from the Judaean Desert and Related Material]. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University Dinur Center for the Study of Jewish History, 2000.

Zangenberg, Jürgen. "Bones of Contention: 'New' Bones from Qumran Help Settle Old Questions (and Raise New Ones)--Remarks on Two Recent Conferences." Qumran Chronicle 9 (2000) 51-76.

Zangenberg, Jürgen. "Wildnis unter Palmen? Khirbet Qumran im regionalen Kontext des Toten Meeres." In Jericho und Qumran: Neues zum Umfeld der Bibel, ed. Bernhard Mayer, 129-164. Regensburg: Friedrich Pustet, 2000.

Zias, Joseph E. "The Cemeteries of Qumran and Celibacy: Confusion Laid to Rest?" Dead Sea Discoveries 7/2 (2000) 220-253.

Zias, Joseph E. "Human Skeletal Remains from the Southern Cave at Masada and the Question of Ethnicity." In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery. Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov and James C. VanderKam, 732-738. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

Zias, Joseph E. "Palestine Archaeological Museum." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:634-635. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Zillhardt, M. "'Et ibidem vidi alias mulieres pendentes.' Avatars de la figure apocalyptique de la mauvaise mere." Revue d'histoire et de philosophie religieuses 80/1 (2000).

Zimmermann, Johannes. "Messianische Erwartungen in den Schriftfunden von Qumran: Einführung und überblick." Theologische Beiträge 31 (2000) 125-144.

Zohori, Menahem. גניזה וספר: פרקי עיון במגילות מדבר יהודה [Gniza Vasefer: Studies on the Dead Sea Scrolls]. Jerusalem: Carmel, 2000.

Zuckerman, Bruce. "Photography and Computer Imaging." In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:669-675. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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