The Orion Center Newsletter
Letter from the Director
Dear Friends and Colleagues,
I write to you on sabbatical, after having completed three years as Director of the Orion Center for the Study of Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature. I am grateful for the chance to have worked closely with many of you and to have become better acquainted with scholars working on the Scrolls in Israel and abroad. It has been a busy period, featuring two international symposia, lectures by leading senior scholars as well as promising doctoral students, and the final stages of the Virtual Qumran project. The range of topics covered in Center programs over these years testifies to the vitality of the field and its importance to the multifaceted study of the Second Temple period.
During this past academic year, Orion has been involved in the planning of two cooperative projects with other institutions, which will bear fruit in the near future. The upcoming "Living the Lunar Calendar" Conference (see p. 2), is a joint effort with the Bible Lands Museum, the University of Haifa, and other sponsors. Looking further ahead, we are collaborating with the University of Vienna in the planning of the 13th Orion International Symposium, to be held in Jerusalem in early 2011, as a sequel to the jointly sponsored conference on the Scrolls hosted by Vienna in 2008.
I would like to thank the many friends who willingly give the Center their material support, especially the Orion Foundation and the Sir Zelman Cowen Foundation. Orion Foundation director Mr. Jeremy Dunkel, Orion Center founder Prof. Michael Stone, and the members of the Orion Academic Committee have been very generous in sharing their time and experience during my tenure at the Center. Finally, I am grateful to Webmaster Ms. Yael Betzalel and the Orion Center office staff, especially Ms. Ariella Amir and Dr. Ruth Clements, whose skills and dedication make the Orion Center the leading institution it is today.
With best wishes,
Orion Center to House DSS Inventory
It has never been an easy task to keep track of all the technical details-inventory number, manuscript name and copy, photograph numbers, publication information, and other data-relating to the Dead Sea Scrolls. True, all the scrolls will now have been published, with the imminent release of Discoveries in the Judean Desert vol. 32 on the Isaiah scrolls, the last volume scheduled in the DJD series. However, the identifying details for many scrolls have changed since their publication, whether through simple correction of errors or through better scholarly insights in the wake of ongoing research (new identifications, new links between fragments, new names, etc.). In 2001, in order to help both the experts and the nonexperts, Prof. Emanuel Tov, former editor-in-chief of the international Dead Sea Scrolls Publication Project, correlated the information then available in a Dead Sea Scrolls Inventory volume, DJD vol. 39.
In the years since that earlier publication, some twenty-five percent of the records have been further updated. Prof. Tov has just published the Revised Lists of the Texts from the Judaean Desert (Leiden: Brill, 2010). The new lists reflect, among other data: archaeological evidence not previously taken into account, new fragments, changed names, and additional new identifications and arrangements of known fragments.
Following the retirement of Prof. Tov, the Orion Center is to become the new repository for the Dead Sea Scrolls Inventory database. Beginning in 2010, the Orion Biblio-graphy staff will take over the task, previously managed by Prof. Tov with the aid of Janice Karnis, of monitoring for and entering new information, as new fragments surface and as scholars continue to conduct research on the known Scrolls corpus. The Inventory project will be partially funded by the Dead Sea Scrolls Foundation, in a fitting extension of its ongoing research and publication functions.
With the imminent release of DJD 32, and the new editions and reeditions on the horizon (see p. 3), there will be ample opportunity for Dr. Ruth Clements and her staff to become acquainted with the new database. As of January 1, any notices of new fragments-or of new editions, new identifications, re-editions, new suggestions of names, etc., for previously known fragments-should be sent directly to Dr. Clements at the Orion Center address (see facing box).
We at Orion want to take this opportunity to thank Prof. Tov for his many services to the community of Scrolls scholars and more generally of Bible scholars. We look forward to collaborating with our colleagues in carrying on this particular important service for scrolls scholarship.
The Orion Center Newsletter, edited by Ruth Clements
© 2009, The Orion Center
Orion Center to Co-Sponsor "Living the Lunar Calendar" Conference
January 30-February 1, 2010
The Orion Center joins forces with the Jerusalem Bible Lands Museum, the University of Haifa, and the Caeno Foundation of New York to present a conference on the place of calendar reckoning in ancient and modern cultures, to be held at the Bible Lands Museum and the Qumran site. The conference begins on Saturday evening January 30, the 16th of the Jewish month of Shevat, following Tu b'Shevat, the day known in the rabbinic (lunar) calendar as the "New Year for Trees."
The conference brings together speakers from Israel, Europe, Russia, New Zealand, and the Americas. Participants will focus on the moon as a marker of the passage of time and address a wide variety of issues emerging from the application of astronomical and calendrical rules to everyday life and to the shaping of cultural identity in a variety of times and places. The conference includes sessions on ancient Mesopotamia and the Middle East; medieval Judaism and Christianity; Far Eastern and ancient American cultures.
The January 31 afternoon and evening sessions are to be held (weather permitting) at the Qumran site, and will include a guided tour of the site, along with a talk on reckoning time in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The conference schedule may be accessed through the Orion website: http://orion.mscc.huji.ac.il/calendar/.
Dead Sea Scrolls on Tour 2009/2010
June 27, 2009 to January 3, 2010
Dead Sea Scrolls: Words that Changed the World
Garfield Weston Exhibition Hall, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
January 2, 2010 to June 6, 2010
Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wis.
March 12, 2010 to August 29, 2010
Science Museum of Minnesota, St. Paul , Minn.
For information on upcoming exhibitions, please visit: http://www.antiquities.org.il/dds_eng.asp; or http://orion.mscc.huji.ac.il/resources/boardExhibits.shtml
Research Grants and Awards
The Orion Center awards Research Grants to young scholars once a year. Priority is given to projects that a) can be done uniquely in Jerusalem or at the Hebrew University; and b) help to integrate the new information being gleaned from the Scrolls into the broader historical picture of Second Temple Judaism. Applications are submitted in the Spring. Please visit our website for specific deadlines and application forms.
2009 has been a year of milestones for the Orion Center. Professor Steven Fassberg, Orion Center Director from 2006-2009, has left the Center to embark on a sabbatical. He has spent the first part of the year researching and teaching in Rome at the Pontifical Biblical Institute; from January he will be in New York at the Jewish Theological Seminary. Many thanks to Steve for his collegial leadership during his tenure at Orion.
Professor Emanuel Tov, a member of the Orion Academic Committee, was awarded the 2009 Israel Prize in Jewish studies, in recognition of his scholarship on the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint, and the Dead Sea scrolls. A celebration of his distinguished career is to be held in early January. Prof. Michael Stone has nearly completed work on a project, sponsored by the Orion Center, called "New Perspectives on Ancient Judaism." The goal is to reevaluate the assumptions behind common historical constructions of the Second Temple period, and to rethink certain key issues (e.g., the religious and historical significance of apocalypticism, the process of canonization) in the light of this reevaluation. Prof. Stone also spent time this past year giving a series of lectures in Australia and Hong Kong.
In yet another leavetaking, Nadav Sharon, who has served as Research Assistant for the Orion Bibliography since the Fall of 2004, has been awarded a prestigious Natan Rotenstreich doctoral fellowship, and has left the Center to devote himself to the mutually full-time activities of dissertation writing and parenting. Many thanks to Nadav for his careful work over the years on the Bibliography and the Orion symposium volumes; we wish him success in this new phase of his work. He has been succeeded in his post by Hannah Wortzman, who has been with Orion as both an Intern and a Research Assistant for the past three years, and is thus well-suited to continue Nadav's work.
New to the Center this year is Dr. Liora Goldman, 2009-2010 Matlow Fellowship recipient. Dr. Goldman, of the University of Haifa, is researching 4Q408, and will present the fruits of her work in a spring semester seminar. We have two student interns this year, masters' students in the Rothberg International School. Gavin McDowell, in the Bible Department, comes to us from the University of Notre Dame; he has been assisting Hannah with the Bibliography. Oana Popescu, who has been sorting and cataloguing materials for the Scholar's Room, is a visiting graduate student from the University of Bucharest, Romania. We have also welcomed a number of scholarly visitors from abroad, including Prof. Torleif Elgvin, Oslo, Norway; Dr. Mats Eskhult, Uppsala, Sweden; Prof. Ida Fr?hlich, Piliscaba, Hungary; Dr. Matthew Goff, Florida, USA; and Prof. David M. Miller, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Thanks to all our visitors, long- and short-term-we look forward to your coming; and thanks to the Orion staff, for making the Center a pleasant and useful place to visit.
Orion Center Academic Committee
Dr. Esther Chazon, Chair
Prof. Steven Fassberg
Prof. Deborah Gera
Prof. Aharon Maman
Prof. Joseph Patrich
Prof. Shalom Paul
Dr. David Satran
Prof. Emanuel Tov
Old Texts, New Editions: Recent and Prospective Publications of Dead Sea Materials
In the wake of the publication of Emanuel Tov's Revised List of the Judean Desert materials, it seems appropriate to make a bit of a survey of some of the recent and upcoming additions to that list.
First and foremost to mention are the last few additions to the Discoveries in the Judean Desert series. The final DJD volume, DJD 32 (scheduled now for release later in 2010), is a 2-part set, on the Isaiah scrolls (1QIsaa, the Great Isaiah Scroll, and 1QIsab, the Hebrew University Isaiah Scroll), edited by Eugene Ulrich and Peter Flint. The first part presents the photographic plates and newly done transcriptions of the texts; the second presents the introduction and critical notes along with a comprehensive catalogue of textual variants. This eager-ly anticipated volume follows the December 2008 releases of DJD 37, edited by ?mile Puech, featuring the remainder of the Aramaic texts from cave 4; and DJD 40 on the Hodayot, based on the reconstruction of Hartmut Stegemann, as updated by Eileen Schuller and translated and annotated by Carol Newsom.
In addition to these new (and final) DJD volumes, a reedition of the texts in DJD 5 (1968), Qumr?n Cave 4.I (4Q158-4Q186), edited by J. M. Allegro with A. A. Anderson, is underway. The texts were originally published with commendable promptitude but with a "minimalist" critical apparatus; that factor, along with the subsequent publication of the remainder of the cave 4 fragments (and indeed the bulk of the Qumran corpus) has made a reexamination of these texts highly desirable. The reedition is spearheaded by George J. Brooke (University of Manchester) and Moshe J. Bernstein (Yeshiva University, New York), in cooperation with Jesper H?genhaven (University of Copenhagen). A conference held at the University of Copenhagen in June of 2009 explored some of the reexamined texts, as well as the principles involved in the original edition and the reedition.
A different kind of republication is represented by Eugene Ulrich's The Biblical Qumran Scrolls (Brill, 2010 and now available). The purpose of the book is to collect into a single volume all the editions of Qumran biblical texts originally published in a wide variety of books and articles (DJD and else-where). Ulrich presents all the Hebrew biblical manuscripts re-covered from the eleven caves at Qumran, with notes on variants.
Among the still-to-come text editions we find Torleif Elgvin's edition of the Sch?yen Collection fragments (see The Orion Newsletter, November 2008). The collection, housed in Oslo and London, contains 60 fragments from some 15 scrolls, both biblical and nonbiblical. Although some have been previously published, Elgvin's edition, forthcoming from T&T Clark, will make all the fragments (as well as a few other artifacts) available in one volume. Also in the works is a Hebrew reedition of the scrolls undertaken by Elisha Qimron, which will incorporate a number of new readings and proposed reconstructions. Several of these recent and forthcoming editions have been able to make use of a range of new imaging technologies, special microscopes, and other scientific aids to decipher new readings on the aging parchments.
FINALLY, as we are all aware, scrolls scholarship has long proved its worth to Hebrew Bible scholars. The Hebrew University Bible Project, which has produced critical editions of Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel utilizing the Dead Sea fragments, is about to go to press with yet another volume, this time on the first five of the Twelve (so-called "Minor") Prophets: Hosea, Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, Amos.
All-in-all, this has been an exciting time for scrolls scholarship. Although the DJD series is now complete, there remains an abundance of work to be done, as previously unknown fragments come to light, and as newer technologies make possible revised readings and sometimes the reidentification of known texts.
Research on the Web: A Look at a Few New Internet Tools
Notwithstanding the pull of books and manuscripts, it is becoming increasingly easy to research ancient texts on line, by way of a growing number of web-based research tools. Among the longstanding "classics" of the internet, readers of this newsletter may well be familiar with Peter Kirby's Early Jewish Writings (http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com) and Early Christian Writings (http://www.earlychristian writings.com), which provide links to online translations of and information for a wide variety of ancient texts. Torrey Seland's well-respected Philo of Alexandria Page (http:// www.torreys.org/bible/philopag.html) provides links to texts in translation, as well as a wealth of scholarly articles on Philo in PDF format. The University of Pennsylvania's CCAT (Center for Computer Analysis of Texts) maintains a web archive with an extensive collection of ancient texts in religion, developed by Robert Kraft and colleagues (http://ccat. sas.upenn.edu/gopher/text/religion/). CCEL (the Christian Classics Ethereal Library, http://www.ccel.org/) provides digitized searchable English translations for hundreds of texts.
Joining these established web research tools are some newer resources for the study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and related texts, of which a few examples follow. First, in the area of Qumran studies, the Orion Center's own Virtual Qumran (http://virtualqumran.huji.ac.il/; you can also enter from the Orion site) provides both an online tour of the site itself, conducted by Prof. Jodi Magness, and introductions to a number of current critical issues in the interpretation of the site, the documents, the Essenes. For a computerized reconstruction of the site, check out Robert Cargill's Qumran Visualization Project (http://www.nelc.ucla.edu/ qumran/). Also for Scrolls students, the Gnostic Society Library has expanded their Dead Sea Scrolls pages (http://www. gnosis.org/library/dss/dss.htm) with a helpful list of links to text editions, photographs, transcriptions and translations of a surprising number of Dead Sea texts now available online, culled from a variety of websites.
For Second Temple period studies in general, a number of new sites have popped up. The Society of Biblical Literature has been involved since 2006 in building the Online Critical Pseudepigrapha website, which features links to critical editions of Second Temple texts. A new website hosted by the University of Vienna highlights the project, "The Meaning of Ancient Jewish Quotations and Allusions for the Textual History of the Hebrew Bible" (http://www.univie.ac.at/judaistik /Forschungsprojekte.htm), conducted by Armin Lange and Matthias Weigold. The project aims to illuminate the textual history of the Hebrew Bible before the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in 70 CE by using quotations of and allusions to passages of the Hebrew Bible found in Second Temple Jewish literature. Last but not least, please note the very new 4 Enoch: The Online Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism, directed by Gabriele Boccaccini, Hanan Eshel, and Loren Stuckenbruck: http://www.4enoch.org/wiki/index.php? title=Main_Page, now in its formative stages.
This note gives but a taste of the many resources now available to scholars and students alike on the internet. For additional research tools, visit the Orion Outside Links page (http://orion.mscc.huji.ac.il/resources/links.shtml).
Orion Center Calendar, 2009/2010
December 1. Jonas C. Greenfield Scholars' Seminar
12:15-2:00 p.m. Dr. Moshe Morgenstern (Department of Hebrew Language, University of Haifa): "Jewish Literature and Mandaic Literature" (in Hebrew)
December 17. Jonas C. Greenfield Scholars' Seminar
12:15-2:00 p.m. Dr. Mats Eskhult, Associate Professor of Semitic Languages, Dept. of Linguistics and Philology (Uppsala Universitet, Sweden): "Circumstantial Phrases and Clauses in Late Biblical Hebrew In the Light of Classical Biblical Hebrew and Other Semitic Languages" (in English)
December 22. Rothberg International School-Pontifical Biblical Institute Lecture in Memory of Miriam Sheffer
5:30 p.m. Dr. Michael Segal (Department of Bible, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem): "Innerbiblical Interpretation in the Book of Daniel" (in English). Boyar Bldg. (The Rothberg International School), Room 311
January 30-February 1, 2010. "Living the Lunar Calendar Conference," Bible Lands Museum
January 13. Presentation and Discussion
12:15-1:30 p.m. Ms. Dorit Gordon (Department of Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem): "Weeping Puppies and Sicilian Cheese-Vita and Against Apion in Their Classical Setting" (in Hebrew)
March 11. Jonas C. Greenfield Scholars' Seminar
12:15-2:00 p.m. Dr. Liora Goldman (Departments of Bible and Jewish History, University of Haifa; Orion Matlow Scholar): "4Q408: A Praise for God" (in Hebrew)
April 14. Presentation and Discussion
12:15-1:30 p.m.: Ms. Miryam T. Brand (Department of Hebrew and Judaic Studies, New York University): "The Source of Sin in Second Temple Texts" (in Hebrew)
May 11. Jonas C. Greenfield Scholars' Seminar
12:15-2:00 p.m. Dr. Guy Stiebel (The Hebrew University; Orion Postdoctoral Fellow, 2007-2009): "New Findings in Qumran Archaeology" (in Hebrew)
Please note: The Greenfield Scholars' Seminars and other afternoon presentations are held in the Mandel World Center of Jewish Studies, The Rabin Building, Room 2001/2, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mt. Scopus. Please check the Calendar on our web site for updates, and for the Spring Semester program.
New in 2009!
Text, Thought, and Practice in Qumran and Early Christianity: Proceedings of a Joint Symposium by the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature and the Hebrew University Center for the Study of Christianity, 11-13 January, 2004, edited by Ruth A. Clements and Daniel M. Schwartz. STDJ 84. Leiden: Brill.
Forthcoming, Winter 2010
New Perspectives on Old Texts: Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, 9-11 January, 2005, edited by Esther G. Chazon and Betsy Halpern-Amaru, in collaboration with Ruth A. Clements. STDJ 88. Leiden: Brill, 2010.
New Approaches to the Study of Biblical Interpretation in Judaism of the Second Temple Period and in Early Christianity: Proceedings of a Joint Symposium by the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature and the Hebrew University Center for the Study of Christianity, June 18-21, 2007, edited by Gary A. Anderson, Ruth A. Clements, and David Satran.
Hebrew in the Second Temple Period: The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and of Other Contemporary Sources. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, Jointly Sponsored by the Eliezer Ben-Yehuda Center for the Study of the History of the Hebrew Language, 29-31 December 2008, edited by Moshe Bar-Asher, Steven E. Fassberg, and Ruth A Clements.
?We ask our colleagues to keep checking the On-Line Bibliography for your own relevant publications and to send us additions and corrections. Thank you!
The Associates Program offers the opportunity to receive current news about the Dead Sea Scrolls while supporting the Orion Center. You can help us foster innovative research and disseminate information to both scholars and the general public about the Scrolls and their significance for the study of the history of Judaism and of early Christianity.
To join the Associates for 2008-2009, please fill in the enclosed form (or visit our website for a printable membership form); mail this form to the Center with your check (made out to "The Orion Center, Hebrew University"). Please be sure to include your name, mailing address, email and other contact information, along with your gift. Gifts may be earmarked to any of the following funds:
1. Endowment Fund: To assist the Center towards achieving financial independence.
2. Library Fund: To assist in expanding the Center Library, located in the Scholars' Room.
3. Fellowship Fund: To provide yearly grants to both young and established scholars for research in the area of Dead Sea Scrolls and related fields.
We thank our current Associates for their ongoing support!