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Re: orion-list Bones, Beads and Battlefields

Dear Colleagues

I'll keep this brief as I went on a bit with another posting in which I
dealt with the battlefield theory put forth by Alumna, Golb et al.

Jurgen asked me if I can be called Joe which I always refer to myself as
the name Zias coupled with Joe in front of it invariably ends up being
Josiah, which I'm sure would anger the gods and the prophets. Therefore
I avoid it whenever possible.

As for the beads, and their importance in this whole argument. Jurgen
seems to feel that as beads were found in Ein Gedi and Jericho this
destroys my argument of  the graves of  the women (except 9) being
Bedouin. I did not base my argument though I could have exclusively on
beads but on the whole burial complex, one which was but 40 cms below
the surface.

    Jericho Tombs- As I said in my recent article (DSD) the fact that
there are beads in Jericho from the Second Temple period,  they are
small in number. According to the recent publication (IAA report 7) the
excavators found but 8 beads from a total of 35 tombs. As these tombs
are family tombs the ratio of bead per tomb is negliable, in fact, the
max no of  beads  per locus or tomb was 2!!  All the beads are glass or
faience and there were no bead necklaces nor anklets unless one wishes
to say that two small glass/ faience beads are a necklace. The
anthropological report is incomplete due to the fact that the religious
authorities forced the anthropologist to rebury the material, however a
total of 247 individuals were noted which is a minimal number.

Ain Gedi- Again the information here mirrors that of Jericho is that
nearly all the beads are glass, whereas in Qumran nearly all are of
stone. Beads were recovered from but 5 five individuals out of a total
of 164. This last figure (164) is however misleading  as again the
anthro. report is incomplete due to the fact that we do not konw the
number of individuals coming from tomb 1 in which a total  of 129 glass
beads from four coffins and siftings were recovered.

In conclusion, the bead data from the both sites (Jericho and Ain Gedi)
do not correlate typologically nor statistically with the Bedouin
material from both Tel Hesi and Qumran.  Therefore the Qumran
woman=Bedouin data from the south eastern cem. is significant in dating
along with the other burial data (plan, orientation, depth, grave goods,

Lastly, what I find difficult to accept for those saying that these
women are Essene or whatever is the fact that one is buried but 40 cms.
below the surface whereas most of the male burials are 1.5 - 2 .0 meters
below the surface. Did the Jews have one burial standard for the men and
one for the women?  For those of you familiar with halacha, you know
that they didn't discriminate in death.



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