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orion-list RE: On Water Consumption

Tom Simms noted:

>>My Post on Macedonian Army Usage seems to have missed the mark.  The
number of comments contradicting D. W. Engels' findings have been

Actually, they seem to be confirmed by Evenari, Shanan & Tadmor's _The
Negev: the challenge of a
desert._ (1971).

>>Engels' little UCalifornia Press treatise on "THE LOGISTICS OF THE
MACEDONIAN ARMY" is about the
campaigns of ALEXANDER THE GREAT. <<

My apologies if I confused the subject of this book with Hannibal
(which I know I did somewhere, as I even looked up the spelling of his
name <g>).

>>Again, here are the figures in 160 ounce 40 ounce quarts in
Imperial measure likewise the similar pounds avoirdupois.

Appendix 5, Table 3 0n p. 145 of Donald W. Engels,
"Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army"
Berkeley: U. California Press, 1978, gives

The Army's Grain, Forage and Water Requirement for One Day

Personnel  - 3 lb. grain,
             1/2 gal.(5 lb.) water

Cavalry, Baggage and Provision
 animals   - 20 lb. grain and forage
             8 gal. (80 lb.) water<<

I am a bit confused by this, as my understanding is that a US (128 fl
oz) gallon weighs 10 (16 oz) lbs, which contradicts the data in the
table if they represent Imperial gallons that should be 20% heavier.
Are the weights in parentheses your comments, Tom, or in the text?

The results of my inquiry at the Archeology Method list were as

Bob Kirk had noted that in his naval days he distilled 15 gallons (60
quarts) of water per day which served all personal needs (sans toilet
flushing & steam for heat, etc).

Jake Jacobson had recommended _The Negev: the challenge of a desert_
(Evenari, M., Shanan, L. & Tadmor, N., Cambridge: Harvard University
Press, 1971). Per his memory of 22 years ago, minimum estimate was 2
litres/day in winter and maximum estimate was 7 litres/day in summer.
He also recommended a journal article he co-authored in which he used
this data to speculate about settlement by small stock herders in an
arid environment (in Namibia) with sparse, seasonal water resources:
Carr, M.J., Carr, A.C. & Jacobson, L., Cimbebasia B2(11):235-258,

Lon Bulgrin recommended _Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the
Macedonian Army_ by Donald Engels (1978 University of California
Press), already recommended by Tom Simms, and which he highly
recommended. Like Tom, he noted that "[m]uch of his (Engel's)
information is based on 19th century British intelligence and army
manuals" and "[w]ith water discipline, he estimated 2 quarts a day per
person and 8 gallons a day per pack animal."

Geoff Carver suggested looking at recent experiments involving
Nabatean-style farming in the Negev region conducted by Ben Gurion
University in Be'ersheva. Geoff was not sure this will be applicable
to Qumran. I do not recall there being any extensive evidence for
agricultural activities at Qumran, except possibly a relatively small
(herb & vegetable?) garden. However, it may contain information
regarding methods for collection of rainwater and their efficiency.


Dave Hindley
Cleveland, Ohio, USA

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