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Re: orion-list Kittim in Dan 11:30?

Dear Marcus Wood,

    You have an interesting thesis with respect to Dan. 11:30.  I would just 
throw in a few possibly useful, possibly irrelevant facts.
    (1) In 1 Macc. 1:1; 8:5 the Kittim are actually associated specifically 
with the Macedonians (i.e. Alexander and Perseus), not the Greeks as a whole. 
 Perhaps this is a significant point.  One might speculate that a Jewish 
tradition existed linking Alexander's conquests with Biblical prophecies 
about the Kittim.  Perhaps some research along these lines might prove 
    (2) In Genesis 10 Kittim is a son of Javan, and I note that at Jub. 9:10 
Javan is assigned "every island and the islands [coasts?] which are toward 
the side of Lud [Lydia]."  This would appear to associate Javan [the Ionians, 
but also Kittim] with Asia Minor rather than the Greek peninsula.
    (3) In the War Scroll (and in the closely related 4QpIsa(a)) the Kittim 
appear to refer to the Seleucid Greeks.  But in 1QpHab the Kittim are clearly 
the Romans (cf. the arguments of Dupont-Sommer), as well as in 4QpNah (where 
they are contrasted with the kings of Javan).  

    Best wishes,
    Russell Gmirkin
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