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Re: orion-list Kittim in Dan 11:30?

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only two points to show the complexity of the theme.

(1) How large was the convoy of war- triremes that followed the senatorial
delegation led by P. Laenas in late summer 167 BC?
IMO there was none at all - the decisive key to understand the surprise of
the Seleucid staff at Eleusis (and of their listening posts on the occupied
Cyprus.) If correct, then, we may consider a somewhat later writing of the
Book of Daniel.

(2) How many Seleucid- Greeks had participated in the parade at Daphne in
spring 164 BC?
IMO nearly none. For the Seleucids were merely the ruling clan over an
internationalized war machine. But the nearly complete absence of Greek
mercenaries at Daphne, esp. from the Achaean league, is essential for a
correction of the misleading Kitti'im as Greeks.

The last Greek mercenary thureophoroi (proverbial Kitti'im) worth
mentioning, recruited by Antiochus IV, were Greek koine, garrisoned in
Cyprus to protect the flank of the Ptolemies up to their capitulation in
spring 167 BC and direct re-garrisoning in Jerusalem, probably already in
the year thereafter in connection with Antiochus' last Egyptian campaign and
the following   retreat of the Seleucid army through Iudaea - the mysterious
'Cyriotes' of 2 Macc.

Finally, Greco-Macedonians are, at least in the age of Ptolemaic cleruchoi
('Macedonians') and Seleucid katoikoi ('Macedonians') less helpful for our
understanding of the term Kitti'im. Together with the Macedonians of Perseus
before Pydna, we see Kitti'im here, Kitti'im there, Kitti'im everywhere!

We'd be on much safer ground, when we assume Kitti'im as 'mighty men (/
westerners) of war', paid professionals that had formed the backbone of a
standing army - not only in Syro-Palestine.


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