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Re: orion-list peacemakers, etc.
In a message dated 99-12-23 15:26:24 EST, Stephen Goranson wrote:
<<Dear George X. Brooks,
The Qumran coin hoard, placed probably in late first century BCE,
is not necessarily one of the Copper Scroll items, and it is not
necessarily typical of the scroll nor Essenes. If I recall correctly,
Robert D. Leonard Jr. allowed that the Qumran hoard might be Essene but
also wrote that the religious affiliations of all other hoards he studied
cannot be known. One can at least ask the question; and remind that the
Copper Scroll total amount is still under discussion. But more relevant
here is the point that, if the hoards other than Qumran are not identified
by religious affiliation, how then can they be used to contrast in size
with the Qumran hoard? In other words, for example, might the 'Isfiye hoard
Dear Stephen Goranson,
I will disassociate myself from the suggestions of George X. Brooks and your
response to him, but in the middle of your reply is a reference to shekel
hoards. The hoard of 561 silver coins in three pots (nearly all shekels of
Tyre) which was recovered by Fr. de Vaux, was studied by the eminent
numismatist Henri Seyrig. The latest coin was dated 118 of the era of Tyre
(= 9/8 B.C.E.), but Seyrig pointed out that coins of the next few years were
scarce, and so suggested a date as late as 126 (= 1 B.C.E./1 C.E.). This
hoard cannot be identified with any treasure listed in the Copper Scroll,
with or without Dr. Lefovits' suggestion regarding "kk" = karsh. I included
this hoard in my study, along with others even earlier, on the supposition
that if the Copper Scroll treasures were from the Temple, they may have
remained in the treasury for a long period (using the last in, first out
method) and the vaults cleaned out only when the Roman armies approached.
However, for this hoard, the point is moot.
Frankly, I would assume that most of the hoards recovered were private
property and not religious property; I have not determined what portion of
the total monetary stock would have been held by religious bodies (the
Temple, Essenes, Christians, etc.). I would be interested in any suggestions
on this point.
Concering the 'Isfye hoard, Leo Kadman argued that it represented the Temple
tax collection of a Jewish community in the Diaspora, and was on its way *to*
Jerusalem when it was buried because of the war. (More recently it has been
suggested that it was the property of merchants.) If so, this would
completely preclude the Essenes. I wondered if it were not perhaps going in
the other direction; i.e., if it were not treasure from the Temple being
taken to safety and buried when capture seemed inevitable. In any case, it
too cannot be matched with any Copper Scroll treasure regardless of the
interpretation of "kk."
If the 'Isfye hoard actually was consecrated offerings, either to the Temple,
the Essenes, or whoever, it suffered an unfortunate fate: part of it was
made into jewelry and sold by an agency of the Israel Government! This hoard
was so big, and depressed prices so much, that some remainders were acquired
by the Israel Government Coins and Medals Corporation, a quasi-government
agency, made into necklaces, and offered all over the world. So Stephen, if
you are pretty sure of the answer to your last question, you can track one of
these pieces down and wear your Essene treasure.
Robert D. Leoanrd Jr.
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