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Re: orion-list Evolution of the Sadducees and Pharisees? - RE: 4Q448
George Brooks writes:
> Russell and others:
> ... I'm wondering what kind of academic treatment there might be on the
> EVOLUTION of the Sadducees and the Pharisees from groups that
> USED to be strongly affiliated with the Hasidim/Maccabee matrix, to
> groups that... have very little in common with the interests
> of the Essene/DSS/"Doers of Torah"/"Doers of War" matrix?
There are of course a number of books on the origins and development of both
Sadducees and Pharisees. The basic problem is the lack of source material on
the emergence of Sadducees, Pharisees and Essenes in the period after the
Maccabean revolt. 1/2 Maccabees mention only the Hasidim who formed the core
of the Maccabean army in 166-163 BCE (and possibly later). The reference to
a delegation "scribes" who sought peace terms with Bacchides and Alcimus at 1
Macc. 7:12 has spawned a great deal of analysis over the years, mostly
centered on theories that these developed into the later Pharisees. (In
actuality, the term scribe refers to army officer here as in 1 Macc. 5:42.)
The next mention of religious parties is in Josephus. First there is the
dubious reference to the three Jewish sects of Essenes, Sadducees, and
Pharisees already existing under Jonathan; then historical incidents
involving these groups c. 100 BCE. So there is a gap in the
historiographical evidence from c. 160-100 BCE.
The best evidence for bridging this gap appears to be the Dead Sea Scrolls
themselves. These certainly include older documents of the Hasidim, notably
the Animal Apocalypse (a sub-document of 1 Enoch which includes a history of
the Hasidim down to 163 BCE), Jubilees (also arguably Hasidic), and also the
War Scroll (as I have argued from the military and historical data) and IMO
related documents such as CD, 1QS (based on parallels in legislative content
and sectarian language with 1QM). But the Qumran scrolls are a library of a
later period. That this library included Hasidic texts presents an
opportunity for tracing Hasidic influences in later periods.
The affinities between 1QS and the practices of the Essenes in Josephus
suggest the Essenes as a candidate for the owners of this library. But such
texts as 4Q448, 4QMMT, 4QMish and perhaps the Copper Scroll suggest the
library was the possession of Sadducean partisans of Jannaeus and his son
Aristobulus II. So it seems to me both Essenes (from Josephus) and Sadducees
(from the later Qumran scrolls) may have utilized the older literature.
Others may view the evidence differently.
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