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orion-list 4Q448

	Psalm 154 was known before the Qumran discoveries from some Syriac
manuscripts, and the Syriac was recognized as probably a translation from
ancient Hebrew. Psalm 154 appeared in Hebrew in the Qumran Cave 11 Psalms
scroll, a scroll which includes the sectarian calendar. In studies written
before 4Q448 was published, some scholars concluded that Psalm 154 was
Essene; others thought not; many follow J.A. Sanders in designating it
proto-Essene. ("Proto-Essene" assumes a development through time
discernable in mss, but, as well, some later Essene text remains may simply
not emphasize the most sectarian characteristics.) 
	Esther Eshel (and M. Kister and A. Lemaire) recognized lines from Psalm
154 in column A of 4Q44B. So the top of 448 has what many consider a
proto-Essene text. Ada Yardeni deserves full credit for recognizing "King
Jonathan" in 4Q448. (N. Golb, who read the first letter of column B
differently than Yardeni, wrote in his book of her to-him limited scholarly
abilities; later, when he prefered her reading of the Year 2 Qumran Deed of
Gift ostracon, his description of her scholarship changed to excellent.)
Ada Yardeni concluded that columns B and C were written with the same (type
of?) instrument as column A. On whether the same scribe wrote all three
columns opinions differ.
	Psalm 154 includes praise for God and condemnation of the wicked. 4Q448
columns B and C some scholars now read as praising God and condeming as
wicked King Jonathan. Since the 1950s several scholars, drawing on other
Qumran texts (and Strabo) have concluded that King Jonathan (Alexander
Jannaeus) was, in the Qumran Essene view, the wicked priest. (Another
minority view is that King Jonathan was praised but only early in his rule,
only at first called by the name of truth.) Puech reads Jonathan in a
difficult text, 4Q523, and, though he prefers the earlier Jonathan as the
one indicated, it is worth recalling that he sees the Jonathan of 4Q523 as
the wicked priest

	Judah, an Essene mentioned by Josephus, and a contemporary of King
Jonathan, has been proposed by some scholars as the teacher of

best wishes,
Stephen Goranson

For private reply, e-mail to goranson@duke.edu
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