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Re: orion-list 1QM Col. ix.3-5; War Scroll string
On Aug. 15 Dierk posted a rejoinder on the question of military structures
in the War Scroll. Sorry, Dierk, for the delay in responding to your
posting. Without going over old ground, let me merely state that I disagree
with your interpretation on the military organization seen in 1QM 3-9,
especially with respect to armies being posted on all four sides of the
"camp". 1 Macc. 6.31-42 indiscriminantly uses "camp" (in both noun and verb
forms) to describe armies setting up camp, armies in stationary encampments,
and armies on the move. So I maintain that camp can (and at 1QM vi 10 must)
be taken to refer to the legions in battle deployment.
Your overall conclusions are quite similar to those of Gazov-Ginsberg, "The
Structure of the Army of the Sons of Light," RevQ 5 (1965) 163-176. However,
I disagree with him too! But there is room in the world - and on this list -
for more than one opinion, so good luck with your research.
> > Finally, historical allusions indicate that 1QM 2-9 was written in
> > winter 163 BCE, and the final redaction of the War Scroll in
> > summer 163 BCE, before the battle with Lysias in late summer / early fall.
You replied with three questions:
> Apropos historical allusions:
> To which decisive battle refers the hymn in col. i 5-9,?
As I argued in "Historical Allusions in the War Scroll," DSD 5 (1998)
185-198, the following historical references may be identified in 1QM 1.1-9.
The initial battle between the sons of light and the "army of Belial" =>
the clash of Maccabean forces with the Seleucid army under Lysias in late 164
BCE (1 Macc. 4:26-35).
The battle against the "troops of Edom, Moab and Ammon" => the Maccabean
campaign against these three neighbors in spring 163 BCE (1 Macc. 5:3-8).
The battle against the "troops of Philistia" => the Maccabean campaign
against Philistia in spring 163 BCE (1 Macc. 5:14-21, 65-68).
The battle against the "troops of the Kittim of Ashur, these being in
league with the violators of the covenant" => the seige of the Seleucid and
Jewish renegade forces in the Acra in summer 163 BCE (1 Macc. 6:18-20).
The decisive battle against the assembled forces of Belial in 1QM i 5-9
(your query) => the anticipated second Maccabean battle against Lysias in
late summer or fall 163 BCE (1 Macc. 6:28-54) - according to 1 Macc. 6:21-30
a direct result of the Maccabean seige of the Acra.
1QM i 1-3 preserves in proper historical sequence all the campaigns of
Judas Maccabaeus in 164/163 BCE, leading up to the (obviously still-future in
1QM i 4-9) battle against Lysias in late summer 163 BCE. Hence 1QM 1 is
datable to summer 163 BCE.
> And when was the Jubilees tradition formed? or the Book of Jubilees
IMO Jubilees went through several phases of composition, beginning with an
edition in c. 200-180 BCE devoid of eschatological content and primarily
directed against the astrological Samaritan traditions in Pseudo-Eupolemus;
an additional layer of material c. 175-166 BCE was directed against the
Hellenists; and a few late additions c. 166-163 BCE contain Maccabean
allusions and occasional strong eschatological content.
> Finally, what was the prize of seven disciplined legions?
The defence of Judea from aggression by their geographical neighbors and
by the Seleucids?
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