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Re: orion-list 1Chr 27, 1QM and 11QT on militia

   It may be of interest to some to clarify how the War Scroll figures of 
28,000 infantry and 6000 cavalry originated.
   It seems certain that the starting point was the Roman Legion of the 
second century BCE, in four lines (of 1200 skirmishers, 1200 hastati, 1200 
principes and 600 triarii) for a total of 4200 infantry in 40 centuries or 80 
maniples.  The War Scroll keeps the four lines, with 1000 in each for a total 
of 4000 infantry, still in 40 centuries or 80 maniples, in keeping with the 
Biblical system of 1000s, 100s, 50s and 10s.  The only major effect was 
reducing overall infantry strength by a ratio of 20/21.
   The remaining difficulty was assigning cavalry strength.  The Roman 
Legions had 300 cavalry/legion, the Italian allies 900/legion.  The War 
Scroll strategist favored the higher number.  But 900 is not a Biblical 
figure.  Worse yet is reducing the 900 cavalry strength by a factor of 20/21, 
resulting in the unworkable fraction 18,000/21 = 6000/7.  The authors of the 
War Scroll solved this problem by having the total military strength of the 
Sons of Light consist of seven legions = 28,000 infantry (roughly consistent 
with Jewish troop strength fielded at various times in the 2nd century BCE).  
By having seven legions, the cavalry strength became 6000, an even multiple 
of 1000, and the figure in the War Scroll.  The figure 6000 itself was 
suggestive, being divisible by 12, so the authors of the War Scroll decided 
on a (theoretical) conscription level of 600 per tribe.
   A turmae or squadron of 25 heavy cavalry was assigned to defend the flank 
of each of the 4 lines of the legion in formation, for a total of 200/legion, 
or 1400 heavy cavalry.  The remaining 4600 light cavalry was reserved for 
offensive maneuvers (such light cavalry from multiple legions being pooled 
together anyway in Roman warfare).
   This accounts for all the figures seen in the War Scroll.

   Another interesting case is the 12,000 elite troops of the Royal Guard in 
the Temple Scroll.  This is clearly modeled on the 12,000 elite troops of the 
Royal Guard of the Seleucid army in the Maccabean period.

   Russell Gmirkin
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