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Re: orion-list Re: self-definition

To Ann Kraemer,
	As you may know, some have denied that Essenes lived at Qumran and
denied that Essenes wrote such texts as the pesharim; my apologies for
having wrongly associated you with them. Here, a few more notes in response.
	In addition to the spellings of Essaioi/Essenoi and Ossaioi/Ossenoi
(by Epiphanius, who wrote that they are Jews who do [poien] everything
according to the law) and Philo's osios (see probus 91 Essaion or osion)
and the Slavonic Josephus variants (including, I think, first O or E, then
one C), consider that Josephus in War 2 spells Essenoi, yet Hippolytus,
whose account is related (either via Josephus or an earlier source or later
version) spells Esenoi (one sigma; M. Marcovich ed. and noted by
Lightfoot), whereas Porphyry, in his account resembling War 2, spells
Essaioi. A 1550 history published in London (translation of the
Carion/Melanchthon Chronicle: "...therefore seemed it them good, to declare
the straitnesse and severitie of lyfe with the dede, and would be called
Essey, that is workers or doers, for Assa, whence the name Essey commeth,
sygnifieth to worke..."
	I'm not sure I understand your requests for statistics. Yes, 1QpHab
7.11 and 8.1 and also 12.4-5. And 4Q171 and 4Q177, etc. Many uses of 'asah
in 1QS. MMT (some of the deeds or observations or enactments--not
precepts--of the torah). Some common words do become names: Society of
Friends, for example. Some are shortened: Pharisees, whether separate from
X or  specifiers of Y or both; Karaites, readers/reciters of the book par
excellence. The Qumran Essene self-designation is precisely a development
from Biblical Hebrew (as is Ebionites/Evionim). Cf. Kabbalists, Gnostics,
Tannaim, Amoraim, Jesuits, Methodists, Mslims, Therapeutae
(servants/worshippers not healers), Hasidim, latter-Day saints, Taoists,
Cathari, Old-Believers. One could consult the materials for the Historical
Dictionary of the Hebrew Language, but still, how to set up statistics? I
guess one could say there is less self-identifying as 'osey hatorah in
mishnah. There are some doers of His will (including Oni the Circle-drawer)
and one could look again at anshe ma'ase, men of deed. Or note the
approximate parallel texts bSota 22 (I think), Avot de R. Natan 37 A
(ayin-sin-aleph-nun-yod) etc. against separatists who ask what is my duty
that I may do it, and the like, and look for echoes. Or look at the debate
whether study of torah or doing of torah is more important. And ask why
orthodox Jews would not generally credit Essenes doing torah and how many
orthodox patristic Christian texts lost interest, though Apostolic
Constitutions says Essenes did torah. One could note the apologetic texts
of Philo (which do not name Pharisees nor Sadducees) sometimes presenting
Essenes as if Jews par excellence (and with parallels to Contra Apion 2).

best wishes,
Stephen Goranson

For private reply, e-mail to stephen goranson <goranson@duke.edu>
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