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Re: orion Essenes; 'osey hatorah?; etc.
The latest suggestion to ignore the relevance of Epiphanius
actually raises even yet further relevant aspects of that evidence.
Remember, first, in context, that those Epiphanius calls here
Ossaioi/Ossenoi he describes in early times as a second temple Jewish group
with clear overlap with those elsewhere known as Essaioi/Essenoi; then
later as a Christian heresy, eventally mixing with Sampsaioi/Sampsenoi. In
both cases, as self described torah observants, as repeatedly also in
Qumran texts and in other descriptive texts. Epiphanius did not invent the
Ossenes. (His including of Essenes also as Samaritans shows he had several
sources, which he did not fully understand.)
Why does Epiphanius call Ossenes a "strong race"? That seems not to
be cacophemism-- not like "wizards of Oz"? :-) --unlike the summary text,
probably not written by Epiphanius, which calls them itamotatoi, most
hasty, brash...overly-strong(?). Well, how to spell strong? With
chet-samek? With ayin-zayin? With ayin-shin? Hmmmm. Ayin-shin-,
ayin-sin-,ayin-waw-sin-yod-....the Hebrew Vorlage of Essenes. Maybe some
explanation for Epiphanius' speculative interpretation there!
Whether or not Epiphanius can be explained on this "strong" point,
again: he did not invent Ossenes, and they were not a sect of
Several questions were addressed to proponents of Essenes as if
Asidaioi but without "d" via East Aramaic, declared "thoroughly suitable"
by F.M. Cross--even before the proposed, disputed, single appearance in
4QLevi. To repeat one of these questions: Bracketing "Essenes" as the name
at issue, is *any* Greek group name reliably ascribed as having -aioi and
-hnoi endings because of prior Aramaic plural absolute and emphatic forms?
As R. Gmirkin correctly responded, to George X. Brooks, Frank
Williams published an English translation volume one in 1987. Volume two,
completing this first English translation of this most important text,
appeared in 1994. Karl Holl's critical edition (3 volumes in GCS; the
latter 2 slightly updated with endnotes by J. Dummer) is better than the
Patr. Gr. edition, but more needs to be done. Some years ago, I think,
Pierre Nautin began work on a new critical edition and French translation
for the Sources Chretiennes series. Perhaps(?), that assignment has since
been passed along to Aline Pourkier. Does any listmember know the status of
that edition and when it may become available?
On Pharisees as "Persians," George, it does not seem to me that you
have presented reason to drop the Hebrew root origin of the Greek term, nor
presented anything especially Persian about them. Previously, if I recall,
I wondered if you were relying on the writings of Edmund Bordeaux Szekely.
If so, are you aware that his claim, for example, to have translated an
"Essene Gospel of Peace" from ancient manscripts is fraudulent?
Some list members may be interested in a new article by Jodi
Magness, "Two Notes on the Archaeology of Qumran," BASOR 312 (1998) 37-44
("A Toilet at Qumran?" and "The Hoard of Tyrian Tetradrachmas and the
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