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Re: orion 1QM i,1; The 'armies (?) of the Kitti'im of Assur'

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-----UrsprŁngliche Nachricht-----
Von: RGmyrken@aol.com <RGmyrken@aol.com>
An: orion@mscc.huji.ac.il <orion@mscc.huji.ac.il>
Datum: Montag, 14. Dezember 1998 07:32
Betreff: Re: orion 1QM i,1; The 'armies (?) of the Kitti'im of Assur'

Russell Gmirkin writes:

>Yet another
>method by which Roman military science could have become known to the Jews
>by way of a Roman Tactica or military manual, which were common throughout

First it could - and then it is common? However, I^“ll agree if someone shows
me the author(s) and the work(s). But what about the secrets of Roman
fortune of war if everyone who wanted was able to study their strategy and

What is known is that the clientele states of the 1st c. BC indeed used
Roman armor and stratagemata (cf. King Deiotharus of Cappadocia in Cicero,
Epistulae ad Atticum).
A word about the manipel and cohort tactic: You^“ll find both in the War
Scroll, the latter - the unspecialized heavy armored one - in col. v,4b-7.
To ignore the Cold War between Rome and Parthia not only means not to
understand the East-West (imitatio Alexandri-) confrontation (introduced by
Herodot), but to carry a mass banners of silk to Carrhae. We know that the
Roman had only 2 per legion, whereas in the War Scroll each infantry
division was equipped with 700. Now to the Kataphract: J. Maier [1] and
Wacholder [2] both depending on Wacholder translate col. vi,15-16 as follows

[1] and they (the horsemen)   (15) and [their mounts] are at[tired with
lamellae-(fish scales-)]armor and with armors for heads and shanks. They
hold in their hands circular shields and a spear of eight [cubits] (16)
[(space for max 20 consonants)] and bow and war javelins

 [2] they (the horsemen)   (15) and their mounts [shall be attired in
cu]irasses (breast- and backplate), helmets and greaves and shall hold in
their hands circular shields and and a spear of eight cu[bits] (16) [...]
and a bow and arrows and war javelins

Comment: Maier shows a  1st c. BC kataphract (or Herodotian Persian) with
fish scales-armor and characteristic bow [sirjon kaskassim? and (darak)
kaeset?] Microfichers to the front!
In contrast to this Martinez^“ horsemen look like 1st c. CE Praetorians in
gala-uniform with too much equipment (e.g. a superfluous bow!)

N.B. if Maier translates correct, then a Roman lamellae-armor, first adapted
from the Parthians in the 2nd c. CE would be an anachronism in the War

That Philistaea (col. i,2) was conquered first by A. Jannai in 98 BC and not
by Judas Maccabee is known;  unknown is the Enochic  reference to Judas in
col. 1,8 (Maier:) ... the Horn of [Israel]; cf. 1Enoch 89;13 f.
But ist only a trap, because "Horn of Israel" is a metaphor to the military
Commander (Davidide by work not by genealogy) of Israel - a simple
Judas-redivivus (like Antigonos, my favorite candidate).



Dr. Dierk Vandenberg
Heinrich-Heine University
Duesseldorf, Germany