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Re: orion Hirschfeld's Excavations

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If Qumran and En Gedi were not inacessible to one another--at least not
entirely--the questions remain: how easily accessible, by what roads, and
how much would access by water be a factor. Fred, could you please provide
reference (e.g., P.A.M. numbers) for the inscribed fragments? Thank you.
	This raises another issue. Is Yizhar's new site to be considered in
or near En Gedi or both (cf., e.g., maps in 'Atiqot 6)? En Gedi was at
times both a town and a toparchy. Would the newly-excavated site and "the
perfume factory in the valley below" be considered (and described) as
separate from En Gedi? Was the whole area destroyed in c.40 BCE and c. 70
	The term "below" can be ambiguous, if one wishes to distinguish
between such senses of infra as downstream, downhill, and others. M. Stern
(I: 481) wrote "...Some other uses are attested both in Latin literature
generally and in Pliny himself, e.g. 'down -stream' (of the river Jordan),
or even 'south.'"  H. Bardtke (Die Handschriften am Toten Meer. 1958, 39
n.2) quotes a German translation from 1853: "Suedlich [ue for umlaut  u]
von ihnen sonst die Stadt Engadda." (Cf. De Vaux p.134-5). Can some orion
reader please tell us, since the Duke U. library does not have this
edition: is it the vol. 1 of studies by Ludwig von Urlichs?
	The AP newspaper article presents the date of A.D. 75 as
significant, following the claim of pottery dates to A.D. 70-100.
best regards,
Stephen Goranson

>I doubt very much that Qumran and En Gedi were inaccessible to one another.
>There are inscribed wine-jar fragments from Qumran bearing the text "en
>gedi", indicating that thatīs where the inhabitants of the site bought
>their wine.
>best regards,
>Fred Cryer