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orion Judaea, Galilee, Peraea

"The part of Judaea adjoining Syria is called Galilee, and that next to
Arabia and Egypt Peraea," according to Pliny N.H. V.70, who then listed the
ten toparchies within the area that *we today* usually think of as being
	This raises the question of which sense of Judaea (the larger or
smaller area) is meant by various other ancient writers (and their
sources),. For instance, when Gabinius, Governor of Syria from 57-55 BCE,
created five synhedria and installed an overseer (epimeletes) in each one,
Josephus refers to the epimeletes of Sepphoris, Galilee as a Judaean
epimeletes (Ant 14.127, 139). (I recall this because an inscription from
Sepphoris may read, in Aramaic letters, "to the epimeletes.")
	So,  when Philo in Apologia  8.11.1,  tells us that Essenes "live
in a number of towns in Judaea, and also in many villages and large
groups"--does he (or his source) mean the larger or smaller sense of
Judaea? (Cf. Quod probus 75, "Palestinian Syria"; War 2.124).
	Epiphanius tells us about the Ossenes that "Even today there are
still remnants of it in Nabataea, which is also called Peraea near
Moabitis..." (Haer.19.2.1); and mentions other locations east of the
Jordan. In 53.1.1 he locates Ossenes and their successors in Peraea and
near the river Arnon. etc. One could also discuss the "land of Damascus."
	So, if Essenes (Ossenes) were, at some time(s) in the part  of
"Judaea" called Peraea,  and we already know they were in Judaea as usually
understood (including Jerusalem, Qumran, and elsewhere--who knows, maybe a
few in Ein Gedi too, though I've yet to see evidence), were Essenes also in
the part of "Judaea" called Galilee?
Stephen Goranson        goranson@duke.edu