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orion Further on Pliny

The hypothesis that Pliny wrote on Essenes after a post-70 visit to
Judaea has been falsified.
	The hypothesis that Pliny used "infra" only to mean "lower in altitude"
has been disproven (e.g., by E.-M. Laperrousaz RB 69 [1962] 369-80).
"Infra" has several meanings, including "downstream." Since Pliny used
many sources, several meanings are likely. The passage can be
paraphrased: "...further along, after the aforementioned Essene
settlement is En Gedi...and yet after that is Masada..."
	In the 17 uses of "infra" from N.H. books III-VI--the geographic books,
all of which use Agrippa and other sources--several use the meaning
"further on, downstream" (see RB for a list). 
	Interestingly, two of those which do so also happen to mention Agrippa
by name (IV.83 and VI.136). And it has been shown (e.g., Klotz, Klio
Beitrage 24 [1931]) that Pliny used Agrippa many times without
explicitly naming him.
	At least, that's what I conclude after a brief library trip. Further
evidence, pro or con, is welcome.

Stephen Goranson   goransons@uncwil.edu

P.S. My e-mail will change this summer to goranson@duke.edu