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Re: 4Q318

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>> > As David Pingree's appendix to the latter article shows, there is nothing
>> > exceptional in this: the Hellenistic world inherited Mesopotamian
>> > astronomy and astrology, and as we find inmany cases, the Qumran
>> > covenanters were a part of the Hellenistic world.
>Actually we are in agreement here. There is no question that Babylonian
>culture influenced Palestine, and the Aramaic texts discussed by
>Greenfield are an example. As Avigdor says, there is massive evidence for
>translation from Akkadian to Aramaic and this is surely how the
>Astronomical culture was transmitted. I'm sorry if I wasn't clear here.
>Seth L. Sanders

I think the impact of Babylonian astronomy/astrology on the Hellenistic
world may not by exaggerated. Helpful to read are two works of M. Albani
(used in the cited RdQ-article):
- Albani, M.: Der Zodiakos in 4Q318 und die Henoch-Astronomie.- in:
Mitteilungen und Beitraege (Theologische Fakultaet Leipzig) Forschungsstelle
Judentum 7 (1993) 3-42
- Albani, M.: Astronomie und Schoepfungsglaube : Untersuchungen zum
astronomischen Henochbuch. WMANT 68.- [Neukirchener Verlag] 1994

There is additional evidence for the adaption of Mesopotamian concepts in
the Astronomical Book of 1En, which I explained in german as an appendix to
- Koch, K.: Die Anfaenge der Apokalyptik in Israel und die Rolle des
astronomischen Henochbuchs, in: K. Koch, Vor der Wende der Zeiten. Beitraege
zur apokalyptischen Literatur. Gesammelte Aufsätze Bd. III (edd. U. Gleßmer
/ M. Krause), Neukirchen-Vluyn 1996, p. 3-40; 
- Appendix/Anhang: Zur Funktion der Tore in 1Hen 72-82 (U. Glessmer), p. 41-44.

In extensive form this will appear in English in the next issue of the
Journal "Henoch":
- Glessmer, U.: Horizontal Measuring in the Babylonian Astronomical
Compendium Mul.Apin and in the Astronomical Book of 1En.- in: Hen 18 (1996)
[in print]

My interest is to show the concepts of 1En (and Calendars know from the DSS)
in the larger context of the development, which leads to the zodiacal
reference-system of astronomy used e.g. in 4Q318 and was also used in the
later synagogue mosaics. etc.

PD Dr. Uwe Glessmer
Lockkoppel 2
D-22391 Hamburg
Tel: 0049-40-536 76 29
FAX: 0049-40-536 53 84
e-mail: glessmer@theologie.uni-hamburg.de