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Re: Essene name

Dear Dick and Uri,
The urim and tummim were not stones on teh breastplate of the high priest 
but "in the hoshen".   The avney hahoshen or stones of the breatplate 
were twelve semi-precious stones.  They have often been confused or 
merged especially by traditional commentators, but cf. Ibn Ezra on Exodus 
28. I studied them recently in an article co-authored by Wayne HOrowitz 
which appeared in the Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society of 
Columbia University two issues ago.  My interpretation and the treatment 
of the Akkaddian text has been called into question by Irving Finkel in 
the next to last issue of Zeitschrift fur die Assyriologie.  He is 
certaily right inmost of his suggestion concerning the akkadian text (LKA 
137) but his dismissal of the relevance of the psephomancy text for Urim 
and Thummim is essentially throwing the baby out with the bath-water 
because the passages in the akkadian text which he rereads are not the 
ones on which the comparison between the psephomancy ceremony and URim 
and Thummim are based. When I get a chance I will respond to his article.
Anyway, there is also a new book on the JSOT series by vanDam on the Urim 
and Thummim, emphasizing the history of their interpretation. Have a look 
at it.  As for Qumranic material (this is, after all, Orion), Strugnell 
has an article on a relevant text in a volume of essays e dited by 
Schiffman. I also refer  to some of the material in the JANESCU article 
mentioned above.
All best wishes,
Avigdor Hurowitz

On Sun, 22 Sep 1996, Richard Ferman wrote:

> Uri,
>      The Urim and Thummim refer to two special stones on the Breastplate 
> of the High Priest. The Breastplate was part of his ceremonial robes. 
> This is referred to in multiple places. Below is a list of references 
> which you might use to research the topic. Please note that these stones 
> are alse referenced heavily in Morman(LDS) writings. I have read their 
> literature, but am not a Morman.
>      Ex 28:30; Lv 8:8; Nu 27:21; Dt 33:8; 1 Sa 28:6; Ezr 2:63; Ne 7:65.
>      If you wish to persue the meaning and ramifications of this and 
> other divination techniques I will do so off-line so as not to obscure 
> the purpose and intent of this service.
>      I may be reached at ferman@svpal.org
> Dick Ferman
> On Sun, 22 Sep 1996, drew odegaard wrote:
> > On 22 Sep 1996, Beruriah Bloom wrote: 
> > > In another context, Josephus uses the word "essen" for the Hebrew word "ho$en"
> > > (breastplate)--which he does NOT connect with the name of the sectarians, but
> > > with logion (oracle, prophecy), following the LXX (because it contained the urim
> > > and thumim, which were instruments of divination).   
> > 
> > If this list will forgive my indulgence here - But I have been perpelexed 
> > by the many different definitions I have obtained about the 'urim & 
> > thumim'.  Could we point this ignorant student (me) to writings or archives 
> > that pertain to these two words? 
> > 
> > Peace.
> > 
> > Uri
> > --
> > a priest according to the true order of Melchisedek.
> > Ephesians 6:12
> > 
> >