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Re: Hosea & Pesher
Thanks to Ian for stating most of what I would have stated. I only need to
add a little. Also, I apologize to Ian for misstating what he meant in his
I do not argue that I am correct in my assessments and that there are no
other possibilities. I only argue that there is a possibility that they are
correct. While your theories, Gretchen, concerning the Pharisees, Sadducees,
and Essenes are closer to an accepted norm than mine, I do not think that
they are more valid. In fact, having studied all of the theories concerning
these groups in detail, I would argue that my theory is better, hence why I
have put it forth.
While you may be correct concerning Ephraim in some cases, you may be
incorrect in others. I do not think that Ephraim as "the northern tribes"
makes any sense in the Nahum Pesher. Thus, I would argue that the word does
not maintain a uniform symbolism throughout the ages. Furthermore, I argue
that chapters 5-14 of Hosea were written circa 159-150 BCE, perhaps within a
hundred years of the composition of the Nahum Pesher, which might strengthen
the connection between "Ephraim" in the pesher and Ephraim in Hosea. That
said, I believe that chapters 1-4 of Hosea are significantly older, perhaps
dating to the time when they are said to have been written.
In relation to Psalm 78, you ask whether or not there is a problem in
the flow of the psalm. I do not believe that there is. My point is that lines
9-20 may be an addition and if one takes them out, the psalm flows fine.
Remember, I am only suggesting possibilities, you need not agree.
Just a few thoughts,
-David Jay Kaufman