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---------------Original Message---------------
According to Andreas Kaplony, a Swiss Arabist reading Geniza 
texts here 
at the British School, Xaver in became a title in Islam from the 

examplar of Abraham, called the friend (Xaver) of God. By 
extension it came to be applied to the learned.

Sigrid Peterson   UPenn   petersig@ccat.sas.upenn.edu
----------End of Original Message----------

I very much appreciate the information about Khaverim, however I 
clarify that I'm interested in Khaverim compared and/or 
contrasted with 
Khasiydim *prior to the DSS* and relative to the DSS (and first century 

I did my homework in EJ (Ency. Jud.) before asking, but didn't find it very 

In a note to Sotah 48a and Giytin 62a the Soncino Talmud defines "Haberim" 
as the opposite of "'Amme ha-arez".  Might Khaveyr then equate to the later 
term(s) Khakham and/or Sofeyr?  These seem to correlate also in Sotah 49a.  
Just to make it a little more complex -- again according to a note in 
Soncino -- Giytin 30b appears to see all L'viyim as Khaverim.

The Khasiydim seem (to me, based on MMT) the granddaddy party of Judaism 
from which all three of the major first century parties seem to derive.  
Were Khasiydim and Khaverim (and Khakhamim? and Sofrim?) mutually exclusive? 
Equivalent?  What was the influence of the Khaverim in this development?  
How did the Khasiydim and Khaverim (and Khakhamim? and Sofrim?) interact 
together to evolve into these three major parties?  Just as the Biblical 
Khasiydim *could* have been the basis and/or origin for the pre-DSS 
Khasiydim, Khaverim, too, *could* have had an early tradition based on 
Y'khezkel 37:16 & 19, even hearkening back for its basis to Shophtim 20:11.  
Beyond that, what can this tell us, if anything, about Khakhamim, Sofrim, 
and the three major parties of the first century?

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Yirmiyahu Ben-David, Pakiyd 16
K'hiylat Ha-N'tzarim
(World-wide Congregation of Nazarene / Nazorean Jews)

N'tzarim Virtual Community Center in
Ra'anana, Israel at
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