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> Later, Islam adapted the title Xaver, Arabicizing it as *Habr*.
> (I use "H" here because the normal Arabic transliteration is *habr* with an
> underdotted h, which I can't reproduce here).They used it in the general con-
> notation of "a non-Muslim religious authority" (such as a rabbi or bishop),
> and also to mean a learned man or scribe. Obviously the original referent
> in Arabic was "a learned rabbi who is a member of a talmudic academy" (which
> meant, in those days, either Sura or Pumbedita, which were geographically
> and culturally quite close to Kufa and Basra (the sites of two early academies
> of Islamic law founded about the 8th century). Basra is still on the map!
the arabic GueBeR refered to parsee priests, gnostics, and infidels-- the
etymology is unclear-- (HBR to charm is one guess)
lexicographers relate it with the talmudic HBR-- (Shab. 11a,45a, Pes
113b) a sassanian priest --