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---------------Original Message---------------
>Israel or Judaea.  Romans later renamed it Palestine.  There's no basis
>for the existence of a 5th-century BCE Palestine.

Agree. But there is a problem here. Judah in the fifth century is a very
tiny part of West-Jordan. What shall we call the whole area later (and
earlier) known as Palestine?

I must disagree.  My understanding is that this whole area was earlier 
as K'na'an (pop. Canaan), never *earlier* known as Palestine.  The passing 

mention in the Herodotus citation, besides being the first in recorded 
history as I understand it, probably referred to circumcision among Aegean 

-- *non-Arab* -- Philistines in 'Azah over which Syria claimed 
Defying the great weight of evidence for K'na'an, Israel and Judea to 
propagate the myth of a pre-Israel Palestine is transparent support for 
non-existent connection between Aegean-Palestinians and modern Arab 
"Nouveau-Palestinians" -- a political agenda that has no place in 

And it was never called Israel in the fifth century. Israel was ANOTHER part 
of West-Jordan, existing only up to 722.  Thereafter it is a non- 
geographical term adopted by Judeans.

Philip R Davies
Department of Biblical Studies
University of Sheffield
----------End of Original Message----------

I didn't suggest it would be easy, but if scholars don't figure out the 
answer with some precision and accuracy, who will?  If not us, then who?  If 
not now, then when?

My suggestion would be to take the pains to be precise and accurate.  Where, 
and when, it is accurate and correct, use Y'hudiyah (Judea), Peleshet 
(Philistia), Yiysrael (Israel), K'na'an (Canaan), or -- for those who prefer 
to endorse the Romans -- *in the CE* -- Palestine.  But Y'hudiyah, as I 
understand it and the *weight* of evidence seems to indicate BCE, wasn't 
called Palestine until the Romans renamed it as part of stamping out the 
name of Y'hudiyah and Israel after their conquest in 70 CE (or 135 CE, I 
forget which).

If we speak of the area that, at the time in question, was most recently 
known as Israel and is under, say, Syrian rule, then what would describe 
this area more accurately and precisely than "Syrian- ruled- Israel"?  Even 
"Syrian- ruled- K'na'an" wouldn't be as accurate.  But Palestine, based on 
Herodotus?  (8-{)}

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Yirmiyahu Ben-David, Pakiyd 16
K'hiylat Ha-N'tzarim
(World-wide Congregation of Nazarene Jews)

N'tzarim Virtual Community Center in
Ra'anana, Israel at
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